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Law Notes European Law Notes

Free Movement Notes

Updated Free Movement Notes

European Law Notes

European Law

Approximately 1161 pages

European Law notes fully updated for recent exams at Oxford and Cambridge. These notes cover all the LLB EU law cases and so are perfect for anyone doing an LLB in the UK or a great supplement for those doing LLBs abroad, whether that be in Ireland, Hong Kong or Malaysia (University of London).

These were the best European Law notes the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LLB samples from outstanding law students with the highest resul...

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents 1

Summary 4

Chalmers et al, Ch. 18; Weatherill, Chs. 11 & 12 6

| S. Weatherill, Law and Values in the European Union (OUP, 2016), Ch 6. 6

I – The location of the threshold at which State regulatory choices become an “internal market problem” 7

A – Internal Market 7

B – Internal Market 8

C – Personal scope of the provision 8

II – Whether these are justified 9

Weatherill, Chs. 9-12; Wyatt & Dashwood, Chs. 13-14 and 17-19 10

I - Defining the Trade Barrier: Quantitative restrictions and measures having equivalent effect 10

Case 8/74 Dassonville [1974] ECR 837; 10

*Case 120/78 Cassis de Dijon [1979] ECR 649 11

Case 33/74 van Binsbergen [1974] ECR 1299; 12

Case C-55/94 Gebhard [1995] ECR I-4165 (esp. para. 37). 12

Cases C-267 and 268/91 Keck and Mithouard [1993] ECR I-6097 12

A - On Goods 12

Cases C-405/98 Gourmet International [2001] ECR I-1795; 13

Case C-239/02 Douwe Egberts [2004] ECR I-7007. 13

Case C-333/14 Scotch Whisky Association judgment of 23 December 2015. 13

B - On services 13

Case C-60/00 Mary Carpenter [2002] ECR I-6279. 13

C - On national rules which impose restrictions on the use of products 13

| Case C-110/05 Commission v. Italy [2009] ECR I-519; 13

| *Case C-142/05 Åklagaren v. Percy Mickelsson & Joakim Roos [2009] ECR I-4273. 13

Oliver and Roth, ‘The Internal Market and the Four Freedoms’ (2004) 41 CMLRev 407. 14

D - Further reading 14

| G. Davies, ‘Understanding Market Access: Exploring the Economic Rationality of Different Conceptions of Free Movement Law’ (2010) German Law Journal 671 14

J. Snell. ‘The Notion of Market Access: a Concept or a Slogan?’ (2010) 47 CMLRev 437 14

| * I. Lianos, ‘In Memoriam Keck: The Reformation of the EU law on the Free Movement of Goods’ (2015) 40 ELRev 225 14

II - Justifications 15

Goods 15

Case 120/78 Cassis de Dijon (Above) 15

Case 53/80 Eyssen [1981] ECR 409; 15

Case C-333/14 Scotch Whisky Association (above) 15

| Case 178/84 Commission v. Germany [1987] ECR 1299 (consumer protection) 15

Case C-2/90 Commission v. Belgium [1992] ECR I-4431 (‘Walloon Waste’); 16

Case C-120/95 Decker v. Caisse de Maladie des Employés Privés [1998] ECR I-1831; 16

Case C-203/96 Dusseldorp and others v. Minister van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer [1998] ECR I-4075; 16

Case C-389/96 Aher-Waggon v. Germany [1998] ECR I-4473; 16

Case C-67/97 Bluhme [1998] ECR I-8033; 16

Case C-379/98 PreussenElektra [2001] ECR I-2099; 16

Case C-28/09 Commission v. Austria (judgment of 21 December 2011). 16

Services 16

Case C-76/90 Säger v. Dennemeyer [1991] ECR 4221; 16

Case C-384/93 Alpine Investments BV [1995] ECR I-1141; 16

Case C-372/04 ex parte Watts [2006] ECR I-4325. 16

Free movement and fundamental rights 16

* Case C-112/00 Schmidberger v Austria [2003] ECR I-5659; 16

Case C-71/02 Herbert Karner [2004] ECR I-3025; 17

Case C-60/00 Mary Carpenter [2002] ECR I-6279; 17

Case C-36/02 Omega Spielhallen [2004] ECR I-9609. 17

Case C-438/05 Viking Line [2007] ECR I-10779 17

Case C-341/05 Laval [2007] ECR I-11767. 17

C. Barnard, ‘Fifty Years of Avoiding Social Dumping? The EU’s Economic and Not So Economic Constitution’, in M. Dougan and S. Currie (eds.), Fifty Years of the European Treaties: Looking Back and Thinking Forward (Hart, 2009) 311; 17

| C. Barnard, ‘A proportionate response to proportionality in the field of collective action’ (2012) 37 ELRev 117 17

| N. Nic Shuibhne, ‘Margins of appreciation: national values, fundamental rights and EU free movement law’ (2009) 34 ELRev 230; 18

| C. Semmelmann, ‘The European Union’s Economic Constitution under the Lisbon Treaty: soul-searching shifts the focus to procedure’ (2010) 35 ELRev 516; 19

D. Schiek, ‘The EU Constitution of Social Governance in an Economic Crisis in Defence of a Transnational Dimension to Social Europe’ (2013) 20 MJ 195. 19

* S. Garben, ‘The constitutional (im)balance between the market and the social in the European Union’ (2017) 13 Euro Const Law Rev 23 19

III - On Exports 19

Goods 19

Case 15/79 Groenveld [1979] ECR 3409; 19

Case C-15/15 New Valmar BVBA (21 June 2016), 20

Services 20

Case C-384/93 Alpine Investments [1995] ECR I-1141 20

Essay/ Problem Questions 20

Advise Euro plc of its rights, if any, under EU law. 20

To what extent is this statement of the law correct? Does the law need reform? 21


Chalmers et al, Ch. 18; Weatherill, Chs. 11 & 12
  • Cassis de Dijon = “product rules”, i.e. rules that require producers to change some aspect of the physical product or packaging before it may be sold, are banned, even if they apply equally to domestic and foreign products:

    • Thus creates principle of mutual recognition = goods should only be subject to the regulation of their country of production, though possible to derogate for legitimate and proportionate reasons

    • Usually treating domestic products less favourably is a matter of national law, though in exceptional circumstances it may lead to a reputational advantage that distorts free movement

  • De minimis threshold?

    • No – Van de Haar (“Article 34 TFEU does not distinguish measures according to the degree to which trade between Member States is affected”)

    • But there is a quasi-de minimis threshold – measures whose effect is too uncertain and indirect to be regarded as being of a nature to hinder trade between MSs (Peralta)

  • Measures that only apply to domestic products:

    • Pistre (C-321/94)

      • Facts: because ham produced from pigs living in the mountains was particularly good, French law had a rule that you can only call products “mountain ham” if your ham was actually grown in a way that made it in fact only possible if you grew it in France. But this rule did not apply to imported ham. A French trader complained.

      • CJEU: “whilst the application of a national measure having no actual link to the importat on of goods doesn’t fall in Article 34, Article 34 cannot be considered inapplicable simply because all the facts of the specific case are confined to a single MS”. In this...

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