This is an extract of our Security And Credit Support document, which we sell as part of our Debt Finance Notes collection written by the top tier of Cambridge And Oxilp And College Of Law students.
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Security and Credit Support Security Fixed charges: creditor controlled what the borrower does with the assets.But borrower can still use the asset in the course of business. Floating charges: 'floats' over the whole of a class of circulating assets,borrower free to dispose of assets until the charge crystallises. Disadvantages: a. Borrower free to dispose so creditor cannot be sure of value of security. b. Floating charge ranks below fixed charges in priority c. Subject to prescribed part fund for secured creditors d. Capable of being avoided under s.245 IA 1986 e. Administrator can pay his remuneration and expenses from secured assets
? Guarantees: downstream (parent for sub) or upstream (sub for parent)
? Debenture: "document creating the security" separate from the loan agreement. Priority: 1 Creditors with fixed charges o If more than one creditor has a fixed charge over the same assets, the first fixed charge created has priority (provided it was properly registered in accordance with s. 860 or s. 859A CA 2006)
? Order can be varied by agreement between the creditors through a document known as a Deed of Priority, an Intercreditor Agreement or a Subordination Agreement. 2 Liquidator's fees and expenses 3 Preferential creditors (wages up to PS800 per employee & occupational pensions) 4 Creditors with floating charges o For floating charges created on or after 15 September 2003, a proportion of the proceeds of the floating charge assets will be set aside for payment to unsecured creditors ---> 'prescribed part fund'. o If more than one creditor has a floating charge over the same assets, the first floating charge created has priority (provided it was properly registered).
? Order can be varied by agreement between the creditors through a document known as a Deed of Priority, an Intercreditor Agreement or a Subordination Agreement. 5 Unsecured creditors, to the extent not paid off from the prescribed part fund. 6 Shareholders (according to the rights attaching to their shares). o Shareholders and unsecured and preferential creditors rank equally among themselves (subject to any preferential rights attached to certain classes of share).Regulation: Financial Services and Markets Act 2000Private companies can only issue bonds to targeted investors and not to the public indiscriminately - s. 755 CA 2006.
If a private company makes an 'offer to the public' of bonds within the meaning of s. 85 FSMA and is not exempt, it will be required to produce a prospectus. Why take security?
Direct recourse Avoid litigation Obtain better priority Increased likelihood of??
Why give security??Cheaper borrowing (lower interest) Needed where weak credit status NB. Negative pledges in other loans &
ss.677-683 CA 2006 financial assistance prohibition.
Security Fixed charge: lender must show sufficient level of control over asset(registration =
s. 859A-Q CA 2006).Floating charge: borrower able to deal with assets until charge crystallises.Re Yorkshire Woolcombers: floating if;
1. Over a class of assets present and future
2. Class would be changing in the ordinary course of business from time to time
3. Contemplated that until some future step is taken the company will carry on its business in the ordinary way.National Westminster v Spectrum: essential characteristic =
"asset subject to the charge is not finally appropriated as security for payment of the debt until the occurrence of some future event. In the meantime, the borrower is left free to use the charged asset and to remove it from the security." WeaknessesVulnerable tosubsequent fixed charges (unless negative pledge) Preferential creditors ?
and ring-fenced fund rank ahead on insolvency Administrator's costs paid out of floating charge assets Can be set aside under stringent anti-avoidance rulesMay not be recognised in other jurisdictions??Advantages Lender obtains security but borrower is free to deal with assets in ordinary course of trading Pre 15 Sept 2003 floating charge over all/substantially all assets ('grandfathered floating charge')
= can block appointment of administrator by appointing administrative receiver (owes duty to specific lender) & not subject to ringfenced fund Qualifying floating charge (para 14, Sch B1 IA 1986) =
can appoint choice of administrator through out of court procedure.
MortgagesLegal mortgage: involves a transfer of ownership - create by deed
--> lender has power of sale under s.101 LPA 1925.Charge by way of legal mortgage: no transfer of ownership, lender gets proprietary rights - used to secure land (s.87 LPA 1925) register at Companies House & Land Registry.
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