This is an extract of our Genetics , Genetic Diseases And Molecular Genetics document, which we sell as part of our Physiology Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.
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An Introduction to Genetics, Genetic Diseases & Molecular Genetics Genetic Code 3 nucleotides encode an amino acid - CODON It is degenerate where some amino acids are encoded by more than one codon Codons that specify the same amino acid are called synonyms Is non-overlapping
tRNA At least one tRNA for every AA Each tRNA recognises and binds to only one type of AA tRNAGly only binds to glycine 74-93 nucleotides Extensive regions of base pairing secondary structure - clover leaf Contains modified bases
Attachment of AA Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase Different synthetase for each type of AA Not just attached but activated
Wobble Hypothesis 1st and 2nd base in codon must pair in traditional manner 3rd base in codon is less constrained and can base pair with other bases
Ribosome subunits mRNA Aminoacyl tRNAs Protein factors GTP
Transcription Reading starts a variable number in from the 5' end until methionine is found Reading stops a variable number in from the 3' end The 1st AA is methionine
Protein Synthesis INITIATION ? ELONGATION ? TERMINATION
Initiation - Prokaryotes N-formyl Methionine is the initiating amino acid since it has no amine group and therefore cannot form a peptide bond on one side
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