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Intro To Animal Psych Notes

Psychology Notes > Intro to Biological and Cognitive Psych (1st year) Notes

This is an extract of our Intro To Animal Psych document, which we sell as part of our Intro to Biological and Cognitive Psych (1st year) Notes collection written by the top tier of Durham University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Intro to Biological and Cognitive Psych (1st year) Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Animal Psych

Darwin
Romanes

Lloyd-Morgan

Thorndike
Watson

Skinner

Pavlov

Natural Selection
Used anecdotes
Hierarchy animal int - linear
Insects  birds  Animals  Humans
Opposed Romanes and anthropomorphism
Shouldn't attribute behaviours to complexity if they can be explained more simply
Trial and error learning
Studied cats using puzzle boxes - gradual decrease in escape times
Behaviourist
Reward/punishment  learning
Little Albert  trained to be afraid of furry animals
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
Reward learning  response shaping
Schedules of reinforcement
Type 1/Respondent Conditioning
Neutral stimulus paired with reward

Acquisition
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery

CS-US Pairings
CS Alone
CS Alone

INTELLIGENCE DISTRIBUTION
Banks & Flora - Fish  Cows  Dogs  Apes  Humans
Justification for rankings:
 Appearance
 Jerison: ratio brain weight to body weight
 Anaxagoras: all animals equally intelligent just only some animals can access hypothetical nouse
 MacPhail: null hypothesis - only humans are more intelligent
 Romanes: ranked on where they appeared in fossil record
Jerison:
Brain weight (E)
Body weight (P)
Cephalisation Index = E / P2/3
Learning: relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience
Operant: Response  Food
Classical: Stimulus  Food
Problems with speed of learning as a measure of animal intelligence
 Unexpected between-species differences Animal Psych
Skard: looked at the rate at which rats and humans can get thro' a maze without making errors
Difficult to equate perceptual demands of test
Difficult to equate motivational demands of test - Bitterman (1975) systematic variation
 comparing species' intelligence is hampered by contextual variables
Within-species differences in speed of learning o


Garcia & Koelling
Train

Test

Vol drunk

Saline  illness
Saline  shock
LTW  illness
LTW  shock

Saline
Saline
LTW
LTW

Small
Large
Large
Small

Learning depends on outcome:
Saline paired with illness NOT shock
LTW paired with shock NOT illness
External stimulus  external outcome
Internal stimulus  internal outcome
Garcia Effect = seeing a light is readily learned when paired with a shock

ANIMAL MEMORY
= current behaviour under influence of past experience
Location of hidden food

Vander-Wall

Photos

Vaughan & Greene

Periodic timing
Interval timing

Number

Clark's nutcracker bird  remember 3000 different location

Over time, pigeons could discriminate which of the 320 photos  food
= ability to respond at a given time
Circadian Clock - 24hr
= ability of animals to respond on the basis of specific durations
Church & Gibbon
Lights turned off
Reward given if rats pressed lever 4 seconds after light turned back on
= rats remember duration
Clever Hans
Couldn't actually count, just responded to tiny human signals

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