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JW REVISION NOTES Gay and Lesbian Parenthood Weston Spitko Benatar Hayden Dunne
Families We Choose (1991) From queer to paternity (2005) The Second Sexism (2011) Reformulating Biology in Lesbian Kinship Lesbian lifestyles (1997) Living 'Difference' (1998) Alldred Making a mockery of family life? Lesbian mothers in the british media Saffron Raising children in an age of diversity: Advantages of having a lesbian mother Bos Parenting in planned lesbian families (2004) Patterson (2006) Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents Bozett Gay Fathers (2008) Golombok and Tasker Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? (1997) Patterson (1992) Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents Patterson & Redding(1996) Lesbian and gay families with children: Implications of Social Science research for policy Stacey (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? (2001) Clarke What about the Children? (2001) But Children are just cruel anyway (2004) Vivien and Gregory School Experiences of the children of lesbian and gay parents (2001) Griffin (1998) Lesbian motherhood in Europe Meyer Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. (2003) Cobb English courts' treatment of same-sex couples (2010) Farr et al Does Parental sexual orientation matter? (2010) Goldberg Lesbian and gay parents and their children (2010) Golombok and Tasker Gay fathers (2010) Hines Brain Gender (2004) Rivers Victimisation, social support and psychological functioning of children of same-sex parents (2008) Gartrell & Bos Stigmatisation and resilience in adolescent children of lesbian mothers (2009) Overview Awareness began in 1978, particularly through child custody suits, which argued that children would be teased by peers and also that they will show atypical development (namely, in gender identity, gendered behaviour and sexual orientation). Early research compared lesbian mother families with heterosexual single mother families, with a view to custody disputes. Children are not at risk according to repeated research, see Patterson's review in 1992. Although these studies only looked at the outcome in young children and had small samples, meta-analyses increase the power of these studies, and a later follow-up study (G+T, 1996) showed longer term results. Showed increased teasing, but no increased psychological problems. Later studies on donor insemination, which addresses issues of early experience without fathers (e.g. G+T, 1997). Relied on convenience sampling, but general population sampling (Golombok et al, 1993) of a longitudinal study shows similarly replicable results. Reviews Bos Parenting in planned lesbian families (2004) 11 studies from 1989 - 2003 on lesbian families with children born in a previous heterosexual relationship, which all show that no psychological harm in children. 9 studies from 1998 to 2003 on planned lesbian families, no psychological effects on children. Review of all the literature of 44 papers Patterson (2006) Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents The roughly equivalent level of psychological well-being between the two groups holds true in studies that test children directly, rely on parents' reports, and solicit evaluations from teachers. The few significant psychological differences found actually tend to favor children with lesbian mothers even though evidence Patterson (1994) found that children ages 4 to 9 with lesbian mothers expressed
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