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Disturbances In Circulation Notes

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Disturbances in Circulation

combat irritant, quickly remove waste products, brings more leukocyte.

Hyperemia (active hyperemia) Congestion (passive hyperemia) Hemorrhage Edema Thrombosis Emboli Infarction

1. Active hyperemia (Hyperemia) Definition: An active process leading to an increased amount blood in the arterial circulation. Etiology:
*all active hyperemias are acute. There are no chronic active hyperemia!
 Acute local: after a meal, oestrous, exercise (physiologic), inflammation (pathologic)
 Acute general: septicemia, bacteremia (pathologic)

Figure 1 normal arteries

Figure 2 active hyperemia

Lesions: inflammation (dark red)



Significance & Results: similar to inflammation eg it brings additional amount of nutrient and oxygen to

2. Passive (Congestion)


Definition: A passive process leading to an increased amount blood in the venous circulation. Etiology:
*can be acute or chronic.
 Acute/chronic local: obstruction to flow (within or outside the vessel)
 Acute/chronic general: lesions impeding normal heart, liver &
kidney Signs: darker red or slightly bluish hue Lesions: oedema




Significance & Results:
 obstruction of principal vein in limbs interfere with locomotion
 fatal if heart, liver, kidney are severely affected
 fibrosis & atrophy



Definition: Presence of red blood cells (RBC) outside of the blood vessel. Two types of hemorrhage: (i)by rhexis, (ii) by diapedesis.

Per rhexis: RBC escape through broken wall of blood vessel.

Per diapedesis: RBC escape through intact blood vessel.
 Petechia = pin-point size to 1-2 mm

Purpura = > 2mm but 1 cm

Suffusion = covers a large area or shape

Haematoma (haematocyst) =
blood clot


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