This is an extract of our Disturbances In Circulation document, which we sell as part of our Disturbances in Circulation - Veterinary Pathology Notes collection written by the top tier of Universiti Putra Malaysia students.
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Disturbances in Circulation???combat irritant, quickly remove waste products, brings more leukocyte.
Hyperemia (active hyperemia) Congestion (passive hyperemia) Hemorrhage Edema Thrombosis Emboli Infarction
1. Active hyperemia (Hyperemia) Definition: An active process leading to an increased amount blood in the arterial circulation. Etiology:
*all active hyperemias are acute. There are no chronic active hyperemia!
? Acute local: after a meal, oestrous, exercise (physiologic), inflammation (pathologic)
? Acute general: septicemia, bacteremia (pathologic)
Figure 1 normal arteries
Figure 2 active hyperemia
Lesions: inflammation (dark red)
Significance & Results: similar to inflammation eg it brings additional amount of nutrient and oxygen to
2. Passive (Congestion)
Definition: A passive process leading to an increased amount blood in the venous circulation. Etiology:
*can be acute or chronic.
? Acute/chronic local: obstruction to flow (within or outside the vessel)
? Acute/chronic general: lesions impeding normal heart, liver &
kidney Signs: darker red or slightly bluish hue Lesions: oedema
Significance & Results:
? obstruction of principal vein in limbs interfere with locomotion
? fatal if heart, liver, kidney are severely affected
? fibrosis & atrophy
Definition: Presence of red blood cells (RBC) outside of the blood vessel. Two types of hemorrhage: (i)by rhexis, (ii) by diapedesis.
Per rhexis: RBC escape through broken wall of blood vessel.
Per diapedesis: RBC escape through intact blood vessel.
? Petechia = pin-point size to 1-2 mmPurpura = > 2mm but < 1 cmEcchymotic = > 1 cmSuffusion = covers a large area or shapeHaematoma (haematocyst) =
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