Veterinary Medicine Notes > Universiti Putra Malaysia Veterinary Medicine Notes > Vitamins - Veterinary Biochemistry Notes

Vitamin Notes

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Vitamin A


Active form/ Other names Retinol

D2 (ergocalciferol)
- Plant&animal D3 (cholecalciferol)
- sunlight



Animal sources - fish liver oil, liver, meat, milk, butter, egg yolk Plant sources - yellow corn, alfalfa, tomatoes, carrots, green vegetables

Precursor: carotene

Cured hay, fish liver oil, milk fat, egg yolk, irradiated yeast

Deficiencies related to animal confinement



Germ of cereal grains, egg yolk, oilseed oil, alfalfa, leafy green veg.

Deficiencies related to long feed storage,
+Se: important in prevention of white muscle disease, protect vital phospholipids from peroxidative damage



Green leafy plants, liver, Egg yolk, fish meal

Produced in the digestive system, Synthesised in rumen

- Regeneration of visual purple (rhodopsin)
- for normal epi.tissues and mucus membrane
- Growth &
- Bone remodeling
- Ca & P absorption
+ metabolism
- Ca deposition in bones
- CHO storage in liver, cells
- protein excretion&
products thru kidney
-fat & CHO oxidation to supply energy
- Antioxidant
- Normal reproduction and hatchability

- Prothrombin formation for normal blood

Deficiency symptoms Night blindness, keratinization of epi, xeropthalmia (severe dryness&opacity of cornea), abnormal bone growth

Rickets, osteomalacia (softening of bones), decreased egg laying

Infertility in some sp. (embryo degeneration in rats,chicken &
ovarian failure in rats), skeletal muscular dystrophy (calves,chicks), encephalomalacia in chicks(can't walk/stand), liver necrosis Hemorrhages in various tissues, increase in

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