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Structure And Function Of The Nephron Notes

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Structure and Function of the Nephron In humans and pigs, each pyramid contains around 100,000 nephrons. Each nephron has a vascular and a tubular component. At the end of the tubular system, there is a doublewalled, cup-shaped structure called Bowman's capsule, which surrounds the vascular component of the nephron, the glomerular capillaries. The space between the two layers of Bowman's capsule, Bowman's space, collects the glomerular filtrate. It is then funnelled into the first tubular part of the nephron, the proximal tubule. The tubular part eventually empties into a collecting duct, which is shared by many nephrons. From the end of the collecting ducts, urine is emptied into the renal pelvis.

1. Structure of the glomerulus The glomerulus consists of many parallel capillaries with interconnections. The glomeruli are confined to the cortex. In mammals each glomerulus is supplied with blood from an arteriole called the afferent arteriole. Unlike other capillaries, glomerular capillaries do not connect with venules - instead they connect with the efferent arterioles. These branch into the peritubular capillaries surrounding the tubules. The peritubular capillaries empty into venules, which in turn eventually empty into larger veins.

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