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Stogdill - 'there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept'. Complement each other but can exist separately.
? Stogdill: for leadership to exist there must be a group, a common task, and a differentiation of responsibility.
? Controversy: Yukl - is leadership a collective process shared among the members, or do all groups have role speciation, where one member has much more influence than the other members and carries out leadership functions that cannot be shared without jeopardizing the group's mission?
? Collective: Pascale et al - one of the key interventions that will restore a company to vital agility is incorporating employers fully into the process of dealing with business challenges, through the process of resocialisation, and engaging employees as meaningful contributors.
? Individual: Barnard: 'the quality of the behaviour of individuals whereby they guide people or their activities in an organized effort'.?Grint - 3 primary functions of democratic leadership - distributing responsibility, empowering the membership, aiding the deliberations (ensuring productive and democrativ decision making, healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. It therefore entails the ability to influence others (Yukl) and influence commitment: o Path-goal theory (Evans et al) - guiding workers to choose the best paths to reach their goals. o Situational leadership theory (Hersey and Blanchard) - leaders motivate higher performance by acting in ways that influence subordinates to believe valued outcomes can be attained by making a serious effort. o Charismatic leadership (Yukl) - leader possesses 'divinely inspired gift', followers idolize and worship the leader, holding affection and unquestioning acceptance, and showing willing obedience. Hence the necessary trait of emotional intelligence (Goleman): o The higher the rank of a person considered to be a star performer, the more emotional intelligence showed up as the reason for effectiveness. o 90% of the difference in profiles between star performers and average ones attributable to EI factors.
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