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Middle Ages Before 1300 Development Of Courtly Love Notes

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MIDDLE

AGES

BEFORE

1300

-

HOW

WAS

'COURTLY

LOVE'

DEVELOPED?


SOCIAL

HISTORY:


? William

the

Conqueror

ruthlessly

take

over

of

England

-

(Normal

Conquest).

Died

in


1087,

only

two

English

landowners

left.

Aristocrats

who

survived

Hastings

either


emigrated

or

become

farmers.

Invading

culture

was

considered

superior,

things

English


were

degraded

--

1/4

of

England

given

to

the

Church

(dominated

by

foreign

forces)

with


Norman

bishops

+

abbots.


? Soon

after

the

conquest,

Will

stopped

trying

to

learn

English

and

after

1070,

all

official


documents

were

written

in

Latin

not

English.

170

Norman

nobles

to

whom

Will

gave

land


made

little

effort

to

speak

vernacular


? Under

W,

social

distinctions

in

rural

society

hardened

-

bottom

of

feudal

scale

were


nation's

serfs,

no

rights

at

all,

attached

to

land

that

they

worked

on.

In

1085,

W

ordered

a


uniquely

detailed

survey

of

rural

population

+

land

holding

of

all

England

(Domesday


book).


? Land

owners

held

manors

and

were

local

lords.

Social

mobility

was

forbidden.


? These

years

were

also

marked

by

new

dynamism;

Normans

restored

the

Church

to

the


north,

constructed

new

cathedrals,

and

founded

new

monasteries,

promoted

education.


Gave

new

importance

to

cities

and

towns


? When

Peter

the

Hermit

-

provoked

first

Crusade

(led

to

the

capture

of

Jerusalem

in

1099


+

establishment

of

a

Christian

Kingdom

in

the

holy

land,

Normans

played

important

role

-


Did

Crusades,

with

myth

of

adventurism

+

religious

idealism

give

rise

to

Chivalry?


? Great

lords

of

England

(e.g

Barons)

like

those

of

France,

had

a

duty

to

raise

an

army

when


needed.

Fighting

was

expensive.

?

arose

class

of

landed

gentry

who

were

encouraged

to


spend

much

of

their

time

away

on

campaigns

+

to

bring

some

of

their

sons

with

them

as


squires.

Gentleman

warriors

were

known

as

Knights

(e.g

Sir

--

)

-

title

from

king

not


inherited.

Went

into

battle

on

horse

back

so

in

French

was

called

Chevalier

-

from

word


for

horse


? When

Will

died,

royal

succession

was

difficult

-

Left

England

to

Rufus

the

Red

(his

son)


and

Normandy

to

another,

but

lands

were

divided.

Rufus

was

wild

+

killed

by

an

arrow


while

hiuting.

Younger

brother

Henry

become

King

(of

E

+N

)

in

1106.

Died

in

1135

-


daughter

Matilda

should

have

been

queen

but

his

younger

sister's

son,

Stephon

sized


power


? 1144

-

He

lost

control

of

Normandy

to

Count

of

Anjou,

region

directly

below

Normandy,


who

had

married

Matilda

while

Henry

was

still

alive.


? Stephon

died

in

1154.

Henry

II

son

of

Matilda,

followed

him

-

father

had

been

3rd

Latin


King

of

Jerusalem,

as

well

as

count

of

Anjou

+

Duke

of

Normandy


? England

was

now

part

of

large

dynasty

-

the

Plantagenet's.

Henry's

reign

was

marked

by


strong

tension

between

King

+

church

power

=

confrontation

of

King

+

archbishop

of


Canterbury,

Thomas

Becket

(B

gets

murdered

inside

cathedral

by

band

of

knights


claiming

to

be

acting

on

K's

behalf).

King

forced

to

submit

to

the

Church

+

Becket

becomes

v important

Saint.


? H's

wife,

Eleanor

of

Aquitaine,

(first

married

to

King

of

Northern

France

but

divorced

him


+

married

Henry,

bringing

England

the

territory

of

Aquitaine).

Her

Grandfather,

Guilhem

IX of

AQ

=

earliest

named

troubadour

+

E

herself

is

major

literary

figure


? Their

son,

Richard

Lionheart

was

one

of

the

most

poetic

figures

in

English

Royal

history

-


most

of

his

reign

(1189--1199)

was

spent

in

wars

abroad,

killed

during

3rd

Crusade

-


childless

so

brother

John

succeeded

him.


? John

lost

control

of

Normandy

+

Anjou

to

kings

of

France

in

1204,

--

left

England

little

to


call

its

own

across

the

sea.

(In

later

literature

this

is

the

Robin

Hood

era)

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