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General History VIII - Calvinism Revision Menna Prestwich, International Calvinism 1541-1715 (Oxford, 1985). Introduction??????
1541 o Calvin starts disseminating his copious writings. A European religion o Calvin himself would have rejected the term 'Calvinism'. What does he believe?
o Not principally about predestination o Christ died for all men o Eucharist was more than a commemorative service, though less than a Lutheran service. o Strict hierarchy of the Consistory. o Doctrine
? Salvation through Christ
? Absolute authority of the Bible
? Sola scripture ? giving equal weight to Old and New Testaments. o Emphasises the importance of family
? Father must set the moral tone with Bible-readings and instruction through the catechism, adjuncts of the sermons. o Consistories
? Believes in parity between churches
? Believes in destruction of priestly hierarchy. o 1559 o First synod of the French Reformed church
? Issued the Discipline and a Confession of Faith 1571 o Confessions of La Rochelle and Emden.
? Reinforce solidarity. International solidarity 1572 o La Rochelle besieged, magistrates get a loan from the city of London 1589, 1590, 1602 o When Geneva was threatened by the Dukes of Savoy, Swiss Protestant cantons, the Count Palatinate, states of Holland and Frisia, all responded with loans. Dutch Revolt o Huguenot nobles know the Netherlands nobility. Don't overstate o Frederick III
? Palatinate sends troops but at heavy cost Aim o Not to adapt to society, but to cast society in a new mould. Consistories o How do these work?
Elders get re-elected and co-opted transforming the consistory into an oligarchy. Vindicaiae contra Tyrannos (1579) o Impossible to shake off the legacy of this. Social background o Le Roy Ladurie
? Shows in Languedoc, Calvinists ranged from peasants of the Cevennes to the rich merchants of Nimes. o Commercial enterprise?
? Olivier de Serres
? Celebrates in his Le Theatre d'Agriculture (1600) the dominance of Protestants in the silk industry. Enemy of art?
Calvin condemned iconoclasm o He condemned the veneration of images as idol worship, but he resented mob action, insisting nothing should be done except under the direction of the magistrates. Patrognage o United Provinces
? Provided Calvinist painters with a court and affluent burghers who like to buy pictures. o Henri IV
? Crown bestow lavish commissions What was Calvinism then?
Synod of Dort (1618) o A harsh, austere and intolerant creed. o Double predestination
? Quite a forbidding and divisive dogma o Requires absolute conformity
? But equally, led to bigotry and hypocrisy. Awkward consequences o Calvin not really Calvinist
? Is the one who really pushes double predestination, and Calvin's humanism, his flexibility and opportunism on issue of church government is ignored.?????
Chapter 1: Calvin by Richard Stauffer??
Calvin was born in 1509, in Noyon, Picardy. He studied for a Master of Arts in 1528, before turning to law because its study brought 'wealth to those who pursue it'. His first major research project was Commentary on Seneca's 'De Clementia' (1532): a work largely of philosophical discussion. Life changes in 1533: o Nicholas Cop attacked those who challenged the Reformists, but most think Calvin wrote this address.
?He owed much to Martin Luther, derived much ecclesiology from Bucer and was on the best of terms with Melanchthon. He had been won over to the Reformation, but remained a humanist. o Indebted equally to St Bernard of Clairvaux, St Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. o Assiduously studied Augustine, with whom he felt a deep affinity. Themes in Institutes of the Christian Religion: o
(IV) Alastair Duke, 'The Ambivalent Face of Calvinism in the Netherlands, 1561-1618'???
March 1581 o The State of Holland outlawed the Mass, after the Abjuration of Philip II over the United Netherlands.
? But how many Calvinists actually reside within the United Netherlands?
? 1/10 Hollanders are Reformed
? 1600 o Majority in Netherlands are Roman Catholics. o Census 1622
? Den Briel
? Small fishing town o Around 1/5th of the population were Reformed
? Just 5% of the 1,200 people are Calvinists.
? Around 6% of the population were Calvinists. Further slow growth outside Holland and Zealand o People aren't convinced by the Heidelberg Confession.
? One Ds. Johannes Hartmann left Heusden because of the godless conduct of its inhabitants. o Lack of enthusiasm to the Sea Beggars in Holland, 1572?
? Much resilience from the Old Church How do we explain the success of the Calvinists therefore?
o Local Catholic churches
? Put into disrepute Reformation in Low Countries o No longer a three-stage rocket (Lutheran, Anabaptists, Calvinist phases).
? More directed by a politique arm. o Calvinists were not endorsed wholeheartedly by the States.
? A coherent religious policy?
? More the fear of Spain and the concern not to drive Dutch Catholics into enemy arms.
? Blunted repressive anti-Catholic measures
? In short
? Not interested in forwarding Calvinist interest in Dutch society than to render Dutch Catholicism politically docile. Slow growth of Calvinism in the Netherlands. Self-imposed?
Calvinists insisted Communion was only for those who were Calvinists.
? Distinguished between 'children of the world' and 'those of the Church' o Gaspar van der Heyden
? Said it was more important to spread the Gospel than Reform the Netherlands. Other influences. o Lutheranism
? Many flocked to Wittenberg to hear Luther speak. o After Peasant's War oPhilip S. Gorski, Disciplinary Revolution: Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe (Chicago, 2008).A disciplinary revolution that comes about through the close links between confessionalisation, social-discipline and state power.WeberThe Protestant Ethic o Saw state as a product of Western rationalism, but also Calvinist doctrine of double predestination
? Problematic. o Weber
? Argues that communal discipline tends to be more intensive than hierocratic discipline. o Ecclesiastical discipline?
? Calvinists and state spirit
? Not content with merely a disciplined Church: they wanted a disciplined society. o Led to a connection between protestant ethic and spirit of the state.
? They were the first to take charity and make it a rational system of 'poor relief'.
? Calvinists and political revolution
? They aspired to the political 'domination of the religious virtuosos belonging to the church' and the 'imposition of godly law upon the world'.Chapter 2: Disciplinary Revolution from Below in the Low Countries?What impact did religion have on social order and discipline?
Dutch Revolt (1565-1589). Charles and Philip o Work hard to control Low Countries.
? Attempt to impose absolutist rule.
1559 - we know Philip II tries to create new bishoprics, and in 1572, institutes the Tenth Penny, Fifth Penny and Hundredth Penny Taxes. Converges with a Protestant upsurge.
? Calvinist hedge-preachers are running across the Low Countries Sea Beggars at Brielle
? A rag-tag band of 1,100 Calvinists
? They 'open' churches and 'liberate' much of Northern Netherlands.
By this point, only Holland, Zealand and provinces around this, are in 'rebel' control. Nonetheless o The Northern states are now a Republic as a fait accompli.
? Failure of the Spanish Armada (1588) Johan von Oldenbarenvelt o Grand Pensionary of Holland
? Maurice of Nassau o Son of William
? Instils discipline in the ranks of the military. 1609 o The independence of the United Provinces is secured. o What is the UP
? Seven northern provinces
? Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Freisland, Drente, Overijssel.
? Technically in the States General, but really in the Stadtholder, provincial estates and city magistrates.
? Calvinism o Enjoys special status, legal and financial privilege and secures the allegiance of the population.
? Catholicism o Grudgingly tolerated.
? Where republicans and Calvinists got much but not all they wanted. Why did the Revolt happen?
? Dutch grandees v Spanish court o Proto-absolutist Philip policies
? Taxes without Estates-General consent
? Centralise power in Brussels o Calvinist militancy o Critically,
? It's how these 3 factors interact that matters. Dutch State Not centralised; much variation o Run on a town level
Laws drawn up by a city council and enforced by local magistrates.
o Philip S Gorski, The Disciplinary Revolution: Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe (Chicago, 2001). Chapter 2: Disciplinary Revolution from Below in the Low Counties??????
William Aglionby, 1669 o The Dutch revolt 'render the Constitution of the State...more robust and athletik'.1 1560s o Calvinist movement had a national following 1566 o Large group of noblemen went to Margaret of Parma, presented letter demanding the retraction of the anti-Protestant edicts. o Iconoclastic fury of the Dutch 1567 o Alba arrives
? Native nobles dismissed and top administrative posts in Brussels are given to Spaniards again. 1572 o Second round
? Sea Beggars
? A ragtag band of 1,100 Calvinist desperadoes.
? They 'liberated' Northern Netherlands and 'opened' Churches. Fast forwards a little 1581 o The United Provinces set up (brokered by the Utrecht Union) By 1585 o Note that Parma has conquered everything so that only Holland, Zealand remain. New leader needed o Potentials
? Francis Hercules (brother of Henri III) ? surely a Calvinist international?
? Robert Dudley (protege of Queen Elizabeth) ? surely a Calvinist international?
Why did the Revolt happen?
o Dutch grandee resentment for Parma o Proto-absolutist policies of Philip II
? Bishoprics plan ? 1559
? Tenth Penny Tax (156x)
? Attempt to centralise power in Brussels, impose taxes without consent of the Estates General. o Military Calvinists conflagrate the situation further. o Its how these merge together that is key. Dutch State Not centralised; prone to regional variation.
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Town laws made by city councils, implemented by magistrates. 'States
? Some have a chamber for each class: to represent clergy, nobels and burgher
? Others done on territorial lines o Pensionaries
? Responsible for providing legal counsel, were de facto ministers o Stadtholders
? Appointed by the monarch first; now by the state, he is the chief magistrate. States General o Major representative body
? 7 provinces
? Holland, Zealand, Friesland, Gelderland, Utrecht, Groningen, Overjissel. Council of State o In monarchy times, was an adviser to the monarch; now its just an executive organ. Power?
o Not really
? Done only in collaboration with provincial estates.
? Collected taxes
? These are only 20% of the national budget
? Local government
? 80% collected by them. Crime o Murder rate in Stockholm 36 per 100,000 (0.036%) A problem: o The Dutch state is not especially centralised, bureaucratised, or monarchical, but it was able to maintain a large military and high level of social order. o Answer:
? Basically, while the central government is quite weak, local government is very strong. o o??Religious Discipline and Social Order: The Calvinist Consistory in Comparative Perspective.??Reformed Churches similar to others across Europe. Local level o Consistory in charge ? parish clergy and church elders.
? Chosen in consultation with town councils. Regional level o Parish clergy grouped together in large units called 'classis'. Provincial level o Classes grouped by synods
? These do contain lay representatives and town councillors. o Synods
? Involved in discipline between clergymen and laymen. Sin
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