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The Dutch Revolt Revision Why did the Dutch Revolt succeed????
A powerful external threat inspires unity. o Charles V
? Taxed heavily. o Philip II
? Absent monarch
? Stubborn in granting toleration
? 1559: ecclesiastical reorganisation
? 1565: launches Inquisition in retaliation of the 1565 Compromise
? 1567: Alva turns up, launches 'Council of Troubles'.
? Spanish Fury, a sack of Amsterdam ? genuinely brings all the North and South together ? leads to the Pacification of Ghent.
? Seige of Naarden. Unity o There is little similiarity; indeed these are local disputes ? but, moments of genuine coordination.
? 1576 = banners were 'Pro Fide et pro Patria'
? Estates General as a genuine unifier. Calvinism o Brought discipline and militancy to a desperate situation. o Don't overstate
? In reality, Calvinism was capricious and uncontrollable, a religion not wholly endorsed by aristocrats and princes the way it had done in France.
? People are a little pissed off when the Sea Beggars take over.
? 1577 - Ghent taken and overthrown (Peter Dathenus)
? Brussells ? Council of Eighteen
? In 1586, Holland and Zeeland see widespread Beggar overthrowings of traditional elites. o 'Calvinist internationale'. o Duke of Alencon
? Brings in 4,000 troops. o Earl of Leicester
? Brings in troops on behalf of Elizabeth I. o Backers: Maurice of Nassau, the landgrave of Saxony supports our man, William. o John Casimir
? In the fray as an alternative to the Duke of Alencon (Malcontent opinion wants this guy). William o Wilhelmus o His own powerful propaganda machine
? The Apologia propagated myths of Spanish barbarity [backed up by Bartolome de las Casas' A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies]
Changing fortunes of Spain. o Spain had other problems
? Bankrupt - 1576 - leads to the haphazard Spanish Fury
In 1567, it's the treasure ship coming in that lets him give Margaret some booster. 1588 - Armada, troops leave Spain, while in 1589, the death of Henri III leads Farnese westwards Decided after Bartholomew 1572, that more important to move east, while in 1571, the Battle of Lepanto rages on, sucking up most resources including Don Juan.Anything from now on that shows the Calvinist international in full force, will be marked in orange
J.H. Elliott, Europe Divided 1559-1598 (London, 1968).???
Similarities between France and the Spanish Netherlands o Women regents
? Margaret of Parma (1559) o Governance issues
? Troublesome, fractious Estates
? Ambitious nobility who want royal administration's control. o Religion
? Facing heresy
? Growth of Calvinism Differences o French royal government was a symbol of national unity in a divided country. o Religion
? By 1560, still very tiny percentage are Calvinist (5% at most). o Nobility
? Haven't mass converted to Calvinism.
? Many cling to humanism. o The Netherland League
? Granvelle remarks they are like the Huguenot League; yes they are a noble group united in challenging royal power, but the Netherland League are not all Calvinists; most have no formal association with the cause. A narrative (om bhur bhuvaswaha) (I) Politics, not religion 1559 o Philip II sets up the Council of State
? Composed of
? William of Orange, count of Egmont, Bishop of Arras (Perrenot who dominates). Troubles
o?1562 o 1563 o 1564 o
Nobles against crown
? William of Orange, Egmont, Baron of Montigny Philip II publishes a papal bull declaring he will radically reorganise the ecclesiastical system in the Netherlands.
? 14 new dioceses to be added.
? Controversial: Nobles saw their sons ousted from power at the gain of royalists. Resentment
? The King had left the country, while the tercio of Spanish soldiers, brought into Flanders in 1553 had been left behind. Absentee monarch
? Kingship is still an intensely personal affair ? fact that he's away makes it easier to get annoyed. Montigny goes to the Spanish court and ask for the removal of the 'Spanish pig", Granvelle. Orange and Egmont leave the Council of State Philip II acquiesces and dismisses Arras.
? A major victory for the Estates - aristocrats achieve control of the royal administration. Still, the nobles feud
? Can't vote on taxes etc. Economic problems:
? Suspension of English imports on unworked cloth, leads to mass unemployment. Cue: militant Calvinism
? William of Orange thinks he might be able to become leader of Protestants Philip II orders Tridentine doctrine to be promulgated.
o 1565-6 o Orange petitions Philip II by means of pamphlet and petition for some of religious liberty.
? Not out of a humanist desire for religious liberty
? Tactical o Similar to France, in the politique view that separated citizenship and religious identity.
? While religious uniformity was the ideal scenario, it was neither worth the bloodshed that would destroy Christendom nor the stability of the state to enforce religion. o Philip II is no Catherine de Medici
? Orders an Inquisition
? Spanish hatred fostered o Particularly from Iberian Jews living in the Netherlands March 1566
By this point, the lesser nobility is forming a Compromise or League against the Inquisition
? Popular discontent and aristocratic leadership has now come together!
? Calls a meeting of the notables who requested an end to the Inquisition o The Netherland League, or the 'Geux'
? Flirtation with radical Calvinism emerging. o Malcontent:
? Outbreak of Northern Seven Years War (1563-70) leads to devastation of Baltic trade
? Winter of 1565-6 was bitter. o All this is perfect fodder for Calvinist preachers: they have ready-made and receptive audiences. Why do people protest?
o Not out of misery
? 1566 winter is not so bad
? Bread prices do drop
? Economic times not as severe as those during Charles V's reign. o Differences between Anabaptists and Calvinist movement
? An under-employed, underfed populace led by apocalyptic yearnings found themselves confronted by the power of the State and a unified nobility who would not tolerate alteration to the existing order.
? Led by Calvinist minsters with practical objectives; the State's authority was null, governing class itself was in opposition to the Crown. Though o Little evidence that in 1566, there is collusion between French Calvinists and the Netherlands. Margaret of Parma o Organises militia to protect towns - though only 18% say they will on oath protect the Church. Social background of the uprising o Respectable
? Shopkeepers, lawyers, wealthy merchants
? 13% of Ghent were Calvinist by this point. Corn prices rise again o 10 August
? Steenvoorde (west Flanders)
? Frenzied mob smash images and loot gold and silver ornaments.
? Spreads to Antwerp, Ghent and Amsterdam 23 August 1566 o Margaret of Parma signs deal an Accord with the Compromise to stop persecution if Catholic worship is left unmolested. o William of Orange
? Seeks a formal religious peace between Calvinists, Catholics and Lutherans
Lutheran princes would throw weight behind his compromise solution. Marcus Perez seeks to maintain dialogue between Calvinists and Lutherans. o?
But Margaret gets her fight back
? With money from Spain, she, along with the Walloon nobility hunt down Brederode's band of rebels.
? Opposition divided
? Moderates are outraged by continuing Calvinist excesses o Orange too leaves the Calvinist camp. February 1567 o Orange
? Refuses to let rebels into Antwerp
? Jean de Marnix's rebel forces
? Cut down by government troops and their Antwerp supports in open country outside Antwerp.
? Valenciennes also surrenders. o Orange
? Awkward position
? Is advised to leave the Netherlands which he does, on the fear that Alba is coming. o Refugees go to Emden, Cologne, France and England o??
Alba leaves Spain in 1567 o Philip is not prepared to let one of his domains turn into another France or Scotland. o Presented as a rebellion, not a holy war on heretics
? This would bring German Protestant princes in. o Marches 9,000 men from Franche-Comte into Lorraine and Luxemburg
? Traumatic effect on Europe:
? No one knows where Alba is going to target. o Geneva?
? A cherished project of Pius V. o Frederick III of Palatinate is planning a Protestant antiSpanish alliance.
? Portrayed as a devastating reclaiming of Europe for the Church. Aims o Limited
? Suppress rebels
? Centralise government replacing provincial liberties. o 9 September
? Arrests Egmont and Horn of the Order of the Golden Fleece o Set up the 'Council of Trouble'.
? Hunted down Calvinist ministers and consistory members. William of Orange, o 1568
Tries to incite a rebellion; only to fail because no town will rise up with him.
Louis of Nassau o 1568
? Tries to o Alba
? He executes 18 nobles who signed the Compromise; he executes Count Egmont and Horn publically in Brussels.
? 1,000 men executed, 9,000 men convicted Alba o Seeks to reorganise the fiscal system.
? Institutes taxes
? Hundredth Penny Tax on real property
? Twentieth Penny on sales of real estate
? Tenth Penny tax on articles of export o March 1569
? Requires States General to pass this
? They don't want the 5% and 10% taxes to go through.
? Incendiary legislation
? Threatened Netherlands with economic ruin. o July 1570
? Philip II gives amnesty to al.
Chapter 7: Crisis in the North, 1572 o
Pius V o Dies but has inspired a great Mediterranean crusade, bringing undying glory to Christian arms at Lepanto. 1572 o Capture of Brielle
? Led by William le Marck
? Driven from the Channel to his surprise fins the Spanish garrison have left to o Haphazard
? Unwanted by William of Orange and Louis of Nassau. But they seize the moment o But bear in mind, Louis is fighting with La Noue and other Huguenots in 1572, they capture Mons and Valenciennes. 8 July 1572 o William crosses the Rhine at Duisberg and advances into Gelderland. Sea Beggars o Have extraordinary success
? They seize both Zeeland and Holland and have blockaded Antwerp. o Why?
? Not simply popular enthusiasm and the Wilhelmus song.
? Ruthless, skilful tactics
? Calvinists o As Beggars approached a town, they would make contact with local Calvinists and breach the walls
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