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Corroboration And Warnings Notes

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CORROBORATION AND ASSOCIATED WARNINGS Judicial discretion to warn of the dangers of relying on the evidence of suspect witnesses: Makanjuola directions etc Lord Taylor CJ in Makanjuola ? laid down rule that trial judge may have to delivery jury warning cautioning them from relying to readily upon the witnesses' testimony, the content of which depends on extent of risk.Law used to have strict corroboration rules, sometimes going as far as to require witness evidence to be corroborated and in other cases just requiring direction. Widespread criticism of corroboration requirements. Led to unfairness, discrimination and confusion. Old rules eventually abolished.

? Now English law has no principle that you cannot convict on a single piece of uncorroborated evidence. (Exceptions in Perjury Act 1911, s13 (no conviction of perjury offences solely on uncorroborated evidence) and Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984). Mankanjuola Directions Court of Appeal in Mankanjuola said judge retains discretion of whether or not to offer directions:
? Wherever matter arises at trial, should be discussed in absence of jury first.
? Otherwise, v broad principles. Depends on the content and manner of the witness's evidence, circumstances of the case and the issues raised.
? No set formula Walker
- Girl complained to police that mother's boyfriend had been having intercourse with her. Later retracted complaint and then made it again. Judge did not refer to this in summing up.
- Ebsworth J - situation "Cried" out for application of Mankanjuola principles. o However Lord Taylor CJ said CA would only interfere with these decisions where the judge's decision was wholly unreasonable. Cell Confessions Admissions made by one prisoner to another during joint detention:

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