Speech And Language Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 3 page long Speech And Language notes, which we sell as part of the Neuroscience 1 Notes collection, a First package written at Oxford in 2015 that contains (approximately) 266 pages of notes across 23 different documents.
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SPEECH and LANGUAGE
-Hearing is crucial for vocal learning and production
-In song birds-deafnesss early in life prevent song learning and production Areas of brain involved in speech Wernicke's area: Understanding written and spoken language
-Traditionally it is Brodmann area 22, found on posterior section of superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (left hemisphere in 95% of right handed individuals and 60% of left handed individuals)
-Area encircles the auditory cortex on sylvian fissure
-Lesion in Wernicke's area- sensory A PHASIA- person will be able to connect words but will lack meaning Broca's Area:
-Region of the frontal lobe of one hemisphere (usually left) with functions linked to speech production
-Brodmann's area 44, 45
-Motor aphasia: Able to comprehend words and sentences but are unable to generate fluent speech, other problems: fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition Hemispheric specialisation Left hemisphere: in charge of language functions and logical thought; speech, song, writing Right hemisphere: controlled by left hemisphere and is responsible for perception of rhythm, spatial-relation skills
-Wada test: injection of sodium pentothal to the blood supply of each hemisphere- if injected on the left side and ask them to read some text and they continue to read but if injected into right and they can't read- then patient has reversed laterality All those who answered this question wrote well informed essays; many were quite outstanding with unexpected evidence of which I was unaware, such as recent evidence for the role of Broca's area in linguistic short term memory. I was sad that so many thought that FMRI activations showing where processing takes place are sufficient to explain how speech is understood or produced. How the named areas cooperate in a network was hardly discussed, nor was the relationship of language to gesture. Production of speech
-Speech is produced as a sequence of sounds - 3 stages
-Conceptulisation- speech begins as a pre-verbal message
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