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Renal acid base regulation pH= -log10 (H+), normal arterial pH is 7.4, (H+)= 40nm Very important to maintain constant pH in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments of the body , otherwise denature proteins, prevent enzymatic reactions from taking place There are three lines of defence against acidosis/alkalosis
-Buffers, ventilator mechanisms, renal mechanisms Buffer: The primary buffer in the body is HC03- and its main function is to minimise the magnitidue of Ph changes via the reversible reaction a) Ventilator mechanisms
-the pH resulting from solution of C02 in the blood and consequent dissociation of carbonic acid is given by Henderson-Hasselbalch equation H2C03 ? H+ + HC03- normal HC03- concentration extracellular is 24nm, Pc02 is 40Kpa, so substituting the values gives pH = 7.4
-Ratio of bicarbonate : Pc02 x 0.03 remains equal to 20, the pH remains at
7.4. The bicarbonate concentration is determined by the kidney and the pC02 by the lung
-If excess HC03-, base excess, alkalinity, base deficit leads to acidity
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