This is an extract of our The Premature Baby document, which we sell as part of our Paediatrics Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Leicester students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Paediatrics Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
The Premature Baby Premature = baby born before 37 weeks
- Premature babies viable from 23-24 weeks gestation o Mortality is high (10% survive at 23 weeks 25% at 24 weeks) o 25% of those who survive have a major disability o >32 weeks prognosis is excellent
Complications of prematurity----
White matter brain injury (necrosis of white matter near ventricles) due to periventricular ischaemia and damage to glial cells. Predisposes to epilepsy and
Brain o Intraventricular haemorrhage o Post haemorrhagic hydrocephalus o Periventricular leucomalacia o Increased risk of cerebral palsy Eyes o Retinopathy of prematurity Temperature control o Increased surface are to volume ration = loss of heat o Immature skin can't retain heat and fluid efficiently o Less subcutaneous fat = less insulation Respiratory o Respiratory distress of the newborn (surfactant deficiency) o Apnoea + bradycardia o Pneumothorax o Chronic lung disease Cardiovascular o Hypotension o PDA GI o Necrotising enterocolitis o Reflux o Inguinal hernias (high risk of strangulation) Metabolic o Hypoglycaemia common
? Must be treated promptly if symptomatic
? Maintain blood sugar at >2.6mmol/L to prevent neurological damage o Hypocalcaemia o Electrolyte imbalance o Osteopenia of prematurity (Joulies phosphate) - risk of fractures Infection o Increased risk of sepsis esp. group B strep + coliforms o Pneumonia common o Infection in lines e.g central venous lines Risk factors for prematurity Blood
- Young maternal age o Anaemia of prematurity
- Multiple pregnancy o Neonatal jaundice
- Maternal illness e.g hypertension
- Cervical incompetence
- Antepartum haemorrhage
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