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Emergency Notes

Medicine Notes > Paediatrics Notes

This is an extract of our Emergency document, which we sell as part of our Paediatrics Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Paediatrics Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Emergency Acute Life Threatening Events (ALTE)

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Combination of apnoea, colour change, alteration in muscle tone, choking or gagging

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Most common in infants <10 weeks old

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May be the presentation of a patentially serious disorder although often no cause is identified

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Management required detailed history and thorough examination

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Infant should be admitted and mutiple overnight monitoring is indicated

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In most the episode is brief, with rapid recovery

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Causes

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Infections RSV, pertussis

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Seizures

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Gastrooesophageal reflux (present in 1/3 of normal infants)

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Upper airway obstruction

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No cause identified

Uncommon causes

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Cardiac arrhythmia

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Breathholding

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Anaemia

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Heavy wrapping / heat stress

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Central hypoventilation syndrome

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Cyanotic spells from intrapulmonary shunting

Invesigations

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Blood glucose (as soon as possible)

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Blood gas (as soon as possible)

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Oxygen saturation

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Cardiorespiratory monitoring

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EEG

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Esophageal pH monitoring

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Barium swallow

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FBC, U&E, LFT

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Lactate

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Urine (collect and freeze first sample)

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Metabolic studiesMicroscopy and cultureToxicology

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ECG - for QTc conduction pathway abnormality

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CXR

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Lumbar Puncture

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

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Sudden and unexpected death of an infant or child for which no adequate cause is found after a through postmortem examination

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Occurs most commonly at 24 months of age

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Factors associated with SIDS

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InfantAge 16 months (peak is 12 weeks)Low birthweight and pretermBoys 60%Multiple births

ParentsLow incomePoor/overcrowded housingMaternal age <20 = 3x increased risk. However 80% of affected are 20+Single unsupported motherHigh maternal parityMaternal smoking during pregnancy (>20 cigs increases risk x5)

EnvironmentInfant sleeps lying proneInfant is overheated

'Back to Sleep' Campaign

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Infants should be put to sleep on their back

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Overheating should be avoided

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'Feet to foot' position

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Parents should not smoke near their infants

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Seek medical advice promptly if the infant becomes unwell

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Paediatrics Notes.