This is an extract of our Equine Wound Management document, which we sell as part of our Veterinary Practical Techniques Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.
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Equine wound management Wounds can be traumatic, surgical, chemical, thermal or irradiation wounds. They can also have varying degrees of contamination - clean, cleancontaminated, contaminated or dirty/infected. The location of a wound will affect the rate of healing. Distal limb wounds heal slowly due to movement and blood supply, whereas wounds on the trunk heal much faster. The underlying structures must also be considered, such as joints, tendons, bone etc. If the smooth cortical surface of bone is exposed, fibroblasts cannot adhere to it. If the periosteum is exposed and dries out, there will be no blood supply to the outer surface of the bone and so it will die off. There are four stages of healing. These are the inflammatory stage, debridement, proliferation and finally maturation. The duration and intensity of the inflammatory stage is determined by the nature of the injury. A pro-longed inflammatory phase retards long-term healing. It also encourages chronic proliferation and fibroblastic granulation. Debridement is often considered part of the inflammatory stage. Neutrophils and macrophages phagocytose bacteria and enzymatically remove necrotic tissue. Proliferation involves fibroplasia, epithelialisation and angiogenesis. Fibroplasia involves fibroblast migration and proliferation. Granulation tissue becomes evident if there is a health wound environment. Myofibroblasts cause wound contraction. Epithelialsation is a slow process and very sensitive stage in healing. Angiogenesis is a complex series of events involving formation of a new capillary bed out of underlying microvasculature. It is mediated by soluble cytokines and chemotactic agents. Maturation is characterised by the change from collagen type III to collagen type I. Re-organisation and structural cross-linking ensues and the tensile strength of the wound increases. Eventually the strength reaches 80% of normal skin. Initial evaluation of the wound should be as follows:?Initial first aid - stop blood flow if bleeding and assess volume of blood loss if severe. Sedation - for horses detomidine/romifine and butorphanol Regional anaesthesia
Small puncture wounds overlying synovial structures may be more significant than large wounds. Wounds can be prepared using:
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