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SEMINARS 1-2: COMMON LAW JURISDICTION
WHEN DOES ENGLISH COURT HAVE JURISDICTION UNDER TRADITIONAL RULES?
1. English court always has discretion to accept jurisdiction under traditional rules. It will also require one of the following: I. D is present in England when CF served II. D submits to the court's jurisdiction III. Court gives permission under CPR rule 6.36 to serve CF outside jurisdiction
D IS PRESENT IN ENGLAND WHEN CF SERVED
1. So C can bring proceedings against D merely because D happens to be temporarily present in England when process is served
2. Maharanee of Baroda - process was served on D whilst he was briefly visiting England in order to attend the Ascot races
3. COMPANIES I. s.1139 Companies Act 2006 - so English company can be served at its registered office or overseas company can be served at any place of business within the jurisdiction
How Does D Challenge This? PROCEDURE
1. Seek a stay for Jurisdictional Reasons I. if D thinks that English court doesn't have jurisdiction over him or the subject matter, he makes an application under CPR Part 11 for: i. a declaration that the court has no jurisdiction and ii. a consequential order setting aside service of the claim form
2. Seek A Stay for Forum Non Conveniens I. If D accepts that English court has jurisdiction:
he will then seek a stay of proceedings asking the court to refrain from exercising its jurisdiction on the ground that C
should bring proceedings before the courts of another country. ii. This application is also made under CPR Part 11 D will apply for: i. a declaration that the court should not exercise any jurisdiction it may have and ii. a stay of proceedings Court's power to do this i. s.49(3) Senior Courts Act 1981 - High Court or Court of Appeal has discretion to stay proceedings either of its own motion or on the application of any person, whether party to proceedings or not. They will decide by considering TWO GROUNDS: GROUND 1: Forum Non Conveniens (per Spiliada). So, it must be shown, clearly or distinctly, that England is not the appropriate forum for the trial. The appropriate forum is where the matter will be 'tried more suitably for the interests of all the parties and the ends of justice'. This is determined by a 2-stage test: a) Stage 1 - D will argue that there is another forum with competent jurisdiction which is the natural forum for trial of the b)
action based on the most real and substantial connection. Stage 2 - if D satisfies this burden, C will argue that substantial justice will not be done in the more closely connected forum or there are special reasons why the trial should take place in England.
GROUND 2 Second ground D can seek a stay of proceedings on is that there is an agreement nominating a foreign court
2 a) Donohue v Armco - where there is an agreement, it'll be up to C to show strong reasons why the court should not follow this. So stay will be granted unless C can satisfy this burden b) Question of validity and construction undertaken by reference to the law which governs the jurisdiction agreement
D SUBMITS TO COURT'S JURISDICTION
1. Global Multimedia v Ara (UK case) - any step taken by D to defend the claim on the merits amounts to submission
2. Re Dulles' Settlement (UK Case) - defendant who appears to contest jurisdiction does not submit
3. Once D has submitted he can't change his mind
COURT GIVES PERMISSION FOR SERVICE OUT
1. Procedure for C a. C makes an application for an order authorizing him to serve out of the jurisdiction under CPR Part 23. b. It is done without notice and full and frank disclosure is required.
2. Court Are Allowed to serve Out Because a. CPR r 6.36 - C can serve a claim form out of the jurisdiction with the permission of the court. This gives the court a discretionary power. BUT
3. Exorbitant Jurisdiction a. Amin Rasheed - Lord Diplock said common law jurisdiction based on service out is an 'exorbitant jurisdiction' BUT b. Abela (UKSC)  - Lord Sumption disagreed with this view, saying that the decision is now a pragmatic one in the interests of the efficient conduct of litigation c. Onus of persuasion lies on the party seeking to invoke it d. The Hagen - given a restrictive approach, with ambiguity going in D's favour
3 What's needed for permission to serve outside of England I.
WITHIN SCOPE OF CPR PD 6B para 3.1
? C must state which ground is being relied upon CPR r 6.37(1)(a)
? Good arguable case that one of these 'gateways' apply (Seaconsar Far East (HL)). This can be less than balance of probs but C must have 'at least the better of the argument' (Camperdown)
II. C HAS A REASONABLE PROSPECT OF SUCCESS
? Comes from CPR r 6.37(1)(b).
? There should be a serious issue to be tried on the merits of the claim by reference to the applicable law (Seaconsar Far East HL) The prospect of success must be 'more than fanciful' (Camperdown) AK Investment - it's the same test applied to summary judgment?
III. ENGLAND IS THE PROPER PLACE TO BRING THE CLAIM
- this rule is found in CPR r 6.37(3). As Seaconsar shows, this requires consideration of whether England is the forum conveniens. So, C must show, clearly or distinctly, that England and Wales is the most appropriate forum for the trial of the claim. The most appropriate forum is where the matter will be 'tried more suitably for the interests of all the parties and the ends of justice'. This is determined by applying a 2-stage test:
? Stage 1: C will need to show that England is the natural forum for the trial of the claim, in that it has the most real and substantialconnection with the claim (Amin Rasheed v Kuwait). Stage 2: even if it can't be shown that England is the natural forum, C will argue that justice will not be done abroad
How Does D Challenge Service Out of The Jurisdiction
1. Remember it's done without notice, so first time D will learn about it might be once served. D needs to acknowledge service within 14 days of being served
2. D can then apply, again under CPR Par 11:
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