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LPC Law Notes Private Acquisitions Notes

Signing Completion Notes

Updated Signing Completion Notes

Private Acquisitions Notes

Private Acquisitions

Approximately 339 pages

A collection of the best Mergers and Acquisitions* notes the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short, these are what we believe to be the strongest set of Mergers and Acquisitions notes available in the UK this year. This collection is f...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Private Acquisitions Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

What The Buyer Wants The seller Wants Compromise
Right to withdraw The buyer wants to include a contractual right to withdraw form the purchase if a major problem occurs prior to completion. The amount of protection given to the buyer often depends on the original reason for imposing the condition If the conditions is a requirement of the buyer, such as the need for shareholder approval on their part, then the seller may justifiable argue that the buyer should assume the risk of any delay Agree to terminate automatically without any liability attaching to either party
Reasonable steps to satisfy the condition Wants to impose the most onerous form “best endeavours” Wants least onerous form “reasonable endeavours” “all reasonable endeavours”
Long-stop date to satisfy the condition (if B has to complete the condition it will want it waved) (if S has to complete the condition it will want it waved) Agree to terminate automatically without any liability attaching to either party

Closing Agenda(Workshop Task Part 1)

Closing agenda:Having a list of what you need from whom is the essential part of the Closing Agenda, the right version of documents should be used and two copies should be made for each document.

Things to be deal with prior to exchange:

  • Transfer of Land

  • Banking Arrangements and Debts

  • Pensions

Documentation that needs to be signed and exchanged:

  • The SPA

  • Tax Deeds

Documentation that needs to be handed over:

  • Share Transfer Form

  • Share Certificate

  • Disclosure documentation

  • Letter of consent (with respect to those contracts where there is a change of control clause)

  • Title over the Properties

  • IP indemnity format

  • An opinion by the local counsel

Completion Board Meeting:

  • This will be the Target Company’s Board Meeting

  • Approve the share transfers

  • Appointment of Directors

  • Acceptance of resignation of auditors

  • Acceptance of resignation of Directors and Secretaries

  • Approve the change of articles.

  • Resolve to call a GM/circulate a WR

Workshop Task Part 2

See Points to Note and Note for WS (5)&(6)

Conditional Contracts

Alternatives if threat of gap between signature & completion:

  1. The buyer may want to walk away

  2. The Buyer may want to wait(check if there is an exclusivity clause in the Letter of Intent. If there is none then, B may want to reconsider waiting as the seller could offer the assets/Co. to 3rd party)

  3. Take the risk and go ahead with the transaction and hope that the condition is fulfilled afterwards (taking the risk will depend on how important the whole contract is for the buyer and what the importance of the fulfillment of the condition is to the contract). The Buyer could take warranties and indemnities from the seller regarding this.

  4. The Buyer may proceed immediately only after renegotiating the Purchase Price. (This has the advantage of assigning a value to the contracts and therefore discounting that value from the contract price.) It may also be possible for the buyer to include a Retention of Purchase Price clause into the contract whereby the buyer will retain part of the purchase price of the target for a certain period after completion.

  5. The Buyer wants to proceed by making a CONDITIONAL CONTRACT(The following are the conditions that the Buyer will want to include in the SPA in this type of scenario and therefore, we assume that this is what the buyer will want to do in a threatened gap between signature and completion). Conditional Contracts are binding on both parties and therefore carry all normal contractual characteristics of compliance and breach.

Provisions to be included inSPA for risks arising from delay between signing & completion.

In general terms,SPA should have the following Provisions (Conditions Precedent) to Protect the Buyer:

  1. An obligation to purchase subject to the satisfaction of the conditions precedent.

  2. Buyer will reserve the right to wave any of the conditions

  3. An obligation on the seller (or the buyer) to take all reasonable steps (or best endeavours) to try to procure the waiver from the third party in relation to the change of control provision;

  4. A long-stop date by which the above condition should be satisfied (or waived) and, in default, provision for the agreement to terminate automatically without liability attaching to either party;

  5. If the condition is satisfied prior to the long-stop date, provision for completion to take place within a specified period of this happening;

  6. Management Restrictions: Get negative undertaking from seller in relation to the management of the business not to:

    1. Borrow, grant security or lend unless in the ordinary course of business;

    2. Settle any claim or dispute;

    3. Buy any large assets, enter hire-purchase agreements;

    4. Dispose of any assets other than in ordinary course of business;

    5. Alter the terms of employment of any directors or employees;

    6. Appoint any additional directors (relevant for share acquisition)

Monitoring: The buyer also will want to be kept informed and to have a representative attend all board meetings. This gives reassurance to the Buyer that the business will not be neglected.

  1. Material Adverse Change (MAC): The Buyer will want the right to terminate the contract should the business undergo MAC between exchange and completion.

    • The MAC clause will require a clear definition in order to avoid any potential disputes.

    • Seller will strongly resist this and only a buyer in a strong negotiating position will get it into the contract as it passes all general risk back to the buyer. As a compromise, make an exclusive list of events that could be termed MAC and are within the Seller’s control, e.g. losing key contracts or customer but not a terrorist attack. The result will depend on the bargaining position of the parties.

  2. Repetition of warranties:

    • B wants protection by having Warranties & Indemnities repeated at closing (so has a right to withdraw if they are no longer true...

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Private Acquisitions Notes.