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Interstitial Lung Disease Notes

Medicine Notes > Respiratory Notes

This is an extract of our Interstitial Lung Disease document, which we sell as part of our Respiratory Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Leicester students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Respiratory Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Interstitial Lung Disease
= Group of conditions causing diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by chronic inflammation +/- progressive interstitial fibrosis Common clinical features
- Extertional dyspnea
- Non-productive cough
- Abnormal breath sounds
- Abnormal CXR/HRCT
- Restrictive pattern on spirometry o Reduced FEV and reduced FVC (therefore ratio >80% = normal ratio) Classification
- Those with known aetiology e.g o Occupational/environmental e.g asbestosis, silicosis o Drugs e.g amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, sulfasalazine o Hypersensitivity e.g extrinsic allergic alveolitis o Infections e.g TB, fungi, viral
- Those with associated systemic disorders o Sarcoidosis o RA o SLE, systemic sclerosis, sjogren's syndrome o UC, autoimmune, thyroid disease
- Idiopathic o Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis o Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia o Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis A condition caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts (e.g fungal spores, avian proteins) leading to an inflammatory reaction in distal airspaces Aetiology
- Inhalation of various antigens may result in a pulmonary inflammatory response
- E.g o Farmers Lung = mouldy hay (thermophilic actinomycetes) o Pigeon Fanciers Lung (pigeon, budgie, poultry (bloom)) o Woodworker's Lung (Wood, dust) Pathophysiology Inhalation of allergens Hypersensitivity reaction Acute phase exposure

Chronic

Alveoli infiltrated with acute inflamm. Cells

Granuloma formation Obliterative bronchiolitis Fibrosis

Acute allergic alveolitis
- 4-8 hrs after exposure to high doses of antigen
- Systemic features = fever, malaise, headache
- Cough, breathlessness
- Inspiratory crackles, wheeze + cyanosis Chronic allergic alveolitis
- Prolonged low level antigen exposure causes features
- Progressive exertional breathlessness
- May be hx of acute episodes
- Weight loss
- Fine end insp. Crackles, cyanosis
- +/- Type 1 respiratory failure cor-pulmonale Investigation Bloods
- WCC, ESR Imaging
- CT scan
- CXR ABG

Acute Raised

Chronic May be normal

Multiple nodules Low lung volume, reticulo-nodular shadows

Fibrosis Fibrosis Type 1 resp. failure

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