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Introduction To Amnesia. Lec 1docx Notes

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Introduction to Amnesia

Patient H.M. - Scoville & Milner(1957)
- Long history of major + minor seizures + uncontrollable by multiple forms of medication - intractable epilepsy
- Radical bilateral medial temporal lobe resection
- After - incidence + severity of seizures dramatically reduced
- Anterograde memory almost entirely absent + some retrograde loss
- His RA extended approx. between 3+ 11 yrs

Measuring Anterograde Amnesia (AA)

Wechsler Memory scale  personal + current info/ mental control (recite alphabet etc) / logical memory (recall short story)/digit span/paired associate learning/visual reproduction - rey osterrieth figure - draw from memory (potentially dissociable)
- HM memory quotient = 67 - v. deficient Rivermead behavioural memory test  practical test of everyday memory
- Remembering - name from photo/hidden belonging
- Recognition - 10 line drawings over 5 mins / 10 faces over 5mins

Measuring Retrograde Amnesia (RA)

Test for public events + famous faces over diff time periods - before onset of amnesia - uncover the extent of the temporal gradient e.g. Squire et al (1989) Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI)
- Assesses recall of facts from person's life (personal semantic) - standardised e.g. school
- Recall of specific incidents in patients life - episodic - verified by family
- Assesses 3 broad time spans : childhood/early adult life/recent facts +
incidents  enables you to gauge the temporal gradient
- Advantantages  easy to administer / not dependent on level of patient interest in current affairs / does not require regular updating BUT difficult to know the accuracy of incidents

Spared abilities in amnesia 1) Intellectual abilities - speech + IQ 2) STM/WM
 Baddeley & Warrington (1970) - compared performance of amnesic patients + control ptp's on immediate and delayed free recall
- Peterson short term forgetting task, paired associate learning , digit span , Hebb digit sequence technique
- Amnesic ptp's have normal STM but defective LTM 3) Conditioning
- Warrington & Weitkrantz - conditioned eye blink responses in 2 severe amnesics - tone and puff of air conditioned an eye blink in them 4) Priming
 Warrington & Weizkrantz (1970) Gollins incomplete pictures test - line/dot to dot drawings - increasing to full drawings - remember

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