Someone recently bought our

students are currently browsing our notes.

X

Intro To Developmental Notes

Psychology Notes > Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes

This is an extract of our Intro To Developmental document, which we sell as part of our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes collection written by the top tier of Durham University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Developmental

Nativist

Empiricist

Neuro-Constructivist

Descartes
Chomsky
Spelke
Locke
Bandura
Gopnik
Plomin
Karmiloff-Smith

Innate
Pre-programmed
Environmental influence
 observing/ culture
Nature AND Nurture
 reciprocal influence

Critical Periods
Lorenz = degree of imprinting depends on distance travelled and age
Active Experience
Held & Hein: active > passive learning
 passive kittens failed tests
Methods
Observations
Looking tasks
Neural measures

Eg Strange Situations
Eg Fantz: if child looks longer at 1 side  tell diff between patterns
Preference and habituation tasks ie preverbal
EEG/ NIRS/ fMRI

Individual differences important

PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT  neural measures
Orientation
Perception

Braddick

3wks

Motion Perception

Wattam-Bell

Depth Perception

Braddick
Atkinson

10wks low speeds 13wks high speeds 11-13wks
Improves w/in 4-5wks onset

&

Certain cells look out for certain orientations
Direction/ Distance/
Speed
Stereopsis ie binocular disparity

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT: Thelen  Adolph
Previously thought MD = progress through rigid stages
Now = dynamic: flexible but limited by simultaneously/regress/skip = continuous
Gesell & Ames: 23 stages

physical

development

2 stages Developmental
Cross-cultural diff eg Jamaica - buried up to knees in sand; Bali - bamboo rail for balance
Role of Experience
Adolph: infants 9000 steps/day
Whether a baby will walk down a slope/cross a barrier depends on walking experience, not age
Visual Cliff: Gibson & Walk
Visual cues = depth drop
Touch cues = safety
 Animals who walk earlier = success earlier by avoiding drop
Edge avoided by 7-8 months: 35% inexperienced crawlers 65% experienced crawlers
Experience necessary for learning visual cues

Role of Context
Does physical context determine motor behaviour?  Thelen, Fisher & Ridley-Johnson
 Baby held over table  usually 4wk old stepping reflex gone
 Stepping with weights reduces stepping frequency
 Stepping in water increases stepping frequency
 stepping limited by muscle strength
Does visual context determine motor behaviour?  Lee & Aronson
 Swinging/moving room - mvt creates illusion infants are swaying
 Infants sway/fall  use visual info to keep balance

ATTACHMENT
Bowlby: attachment to primary caregiver = innate: monotropy
Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis: breaking bond before 5y/o, especially 6m/o-3y/o 
aggression/depression etc - even PT work
Birth-6wks 6wks - 6-8mnths 6-8mnths - 18-24mnths

Pre-attachment
Making attachment
'Clear cut' attachment

18-24mnths 

Forming reciprocal rel

Orineting to anyone
Orienting to primary CG
Close to primary CG
Separation protest
Stranger fear
Accommodates mother's needs

Internal Working Model: child's beliefs of trust, own value and social effectiveness Developmental

Strange Situation: Ainsworth & Bell
Scored on:
 Proximity and contact seeking
 Contact maintaining
 Avoidance of proximity
 Resistance to contact
Type A: Insecure Avoidant
Type B: Secure

Type
C:
resistant/Ambivalent

Insecure

Type D: Insecure disorganized
- Main & Solomon

Secure
Avoidant
Resistant/Ambivalent
Disorganised

Independent - not distressed by Mum absence
No M play but plays with stranger
Mum = secure based
Distressed on M absence
Happy on M return
Little exploring, afraid of stranger
V distressed when M leaves
M returns  clingy yet resistant
Mum = inconsistent
Inconsistent/ contradictory - fear of parent
Parent = fear, yet only source of safety (van Ijzendoorn)
Related to drug abuse/ maltreatment

% infants in each category
Original
Newer 70 62 20 15 10 9 x 15

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Genetics
Shared family environment
Non-shared environment

14%
32%
53%

O'Connor & Croft: 70% MZ 64% DZ concordance attachment style
NICHD:
High quality care = high linguistic and cognitive scores until 11y/o
Lots of childcare = high aggression
Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis: mother's response to infant determines attachment
 correlated with attachment r=0.24 Developmental

MIND-MINDEDNESS: Meins
Mother responds with appropriate content to child
Eg response to gaze change/ object-directed action
M talks about object of infant's attention
Maternal responsiveness related to attachment security
Appropriate comments strongly related to attachment security
 discriminates between insecure avoidant and ambivalent

FIRST YEAR: BASIC PHONOLOGY
Phonology = ability to make sense of incoming speech stream
Innate: DeCasper & Prescott:
8/10 3day olds sucked more when hearing Mum's voice
 learned rhythm/ intonation/ accent in utero  no preference for Dad's voice
Preferred 'cat in hat' over other stories  rhythm
Early learning 1st year
Eimas: by 1-2m/o can discriminate phonemes b d g
Perceptual Narrowing: Werker & Tees = lose ability to discriminate speech sounds which are not in own language
Motherese = high pitch, slow pace, exaggerated intonations  aids understanding
 infants prefer to normal speech
Before 1y/o = first speech-like behaviours:
 Echolalia (mamama)
 Babbling
 Gesture
 Turn-taking
 not to convey meaning - aids social interaction

FIRST WORDS  usually concrete nouns
May group thigs with same function (spoon/ fork) or share features (moon/ ball)
Little grammar  gestures supplement for this
Gleitman: Synaptic bootstrapping = children use a grammatical distinction to assign meanings to words  use grammatical context
Context helps learn meaning

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Intro to Social and Developmental Psych (1st year) Notes.