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Structure Of The State Notes

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Structure of the State

Key Dates Trends Court Parliament Cromwell Monarch Charles II The 'Glorious Revolution' Other government The Provinces

Key Dates

1539 - Act of Proclamations - repealed in 1547 1556 - PC gained own seal 1606 - Bates' Case - refused to pay duty on currants 1608 - Impositions extended to most imports 1610 - the Great Contract - arguably achieved at the Restoration 50 years later 1626 - Parliament tried to impeach Buckingham - Charles dissolved it instead 1628 - panic that Charles was dead in Wales -> public announcements and fear of papists 1628 - Parliament was trying to give itself 'a universal overswaying power' which only belonged to Charles 1630s - local conflict over Laudian innovations 1640 - 10k signed petition for Charles to call Parliament 1640-41 - mass demonstrations of up to 15k in London -> execution of Strafford 1641 - Abolishment of the Star Chamber 1647 - Leveller proposed limitations of parliamentary powers through an 'Agreement of the People' - though Parliament was 'unlimited and arbitrary' -> suppressed in 1649 1660 - illegal to petition for a change in the law or to have a petition of more than 10 people 1667 - turning point in creation of financial commissioners who bypassed PC 1679 - Exclusion Bill -> increased polarisation 1689 - Parliament gave the crown to William and Mary 1701 - Act of Settlement where Parliament removes divine right and hereditary succession in passing succession to Hanoverians and also rules on marriage - unlike Henry VII's coronation where he called Parliament afterwards


Increase in parliamentary governmental power Interdependent with the decline of the court Yet not totally related Still existent as separate entities at the end of the period - roles had changed significantly Shift from military power to service of the state More of an ad hoc transformation than a consistently planned one e.g. Cromwell

Monarch's personality causes issues e.g. Under James II the Privy Council met less than once a week Focus on evil councillors e.g. Strafford and Laud Increased business of secretary of state and signet - by 1532 rivalled office of Privy Seal From 1554 the Exchequer was dominant - national treasury

Central issue of royal prerogative - undefined in 1603 King, Parliament or fundamental 'common law'?

By 1700 the use of war to decide disputes is questioned Large scale popular uprisings were largely discredited as a political method by the end of the 16th century -> small-scale petitions etc.

Elton - 'Tudor Revolution in Government' Signet to sign manual and also the dry stamp from 1545

'Points of Contact' Providence Protestant religious culture Greater unity caused by development of vernacular and printing -> standardised language - increasingly literate political nation

Loach - century after 1530 was one of substantial harmony in relations between crown and Parliament Parliament served the needs of the ruler and the ruled satisfactorily until at least the 1620s Parliament was just an aspect in wider political society Growth of systematic use of mass politics - growing acceptance of populist politics Restoration - return of decentralisation -> particularly the domination of a few in James II's Court

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