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LPC Law Notes Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes

Potential Liabilities Relating To Share Issues Notes

Updated Potential Liabilities Relating To Share Issues Notes

Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes

Public Companies and Equity Finance

Approximately 165 pages

A collection of the best LPC Equity Finance notes the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through twenty-nine LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short these are what we believe to be the strongest set of Equity Finance notes available in the UK this year. This collection of notes is fully upd...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

3. Potential liabilities relating to share issues

  1. Financial Promotions with reference to FSMA and the FPO

s. 21 FMSA General prohibition on all types of investment activity but does not apply if falls within any of the exemptions set out in FPO or if A is authorized person or content approved by authorized person
Scope Applies to communication sin UK and communications originating outside but capable of having affect in UK
Key terms

communication” = telephone, email, meetings, presentations, websites, radio, TV, etc..

“invitation” = includes invitation to treat so inviting someone to enter into investment agreement would be invitation, e.g. prospectus with application form attached

“inducement” = FCA Guidance says depends on context and reasonable person, must contain an objective element of “persuasion or incitement”.

Exemptions (s 21(5) FSMA empowers FPO)

Articles 19,47,49


Communications made to persons sufficiently expert to understand the risks involved, eg

  • Professional investors (Art 19)

  • Substantial companies (Art 49)

  • Financial press (Art 47)

Article 48 FPO Cert High Net Worth Individuals (unlisted companies only): Aims to cover communications between new companies and rich individuals wishing to invest in new enterprises
Article 50 FPO Sophisticated Investors, i.e persons certified by an authorized person as being sufficiently knowledge to understand risks
Article 62 FPO Communication relating to transaction to acquire or dispose of controlling shares of a company or to acquire or dispose of shares which when aggregated take total shareholdings to a level which amounts to a controlling interest.
Article 70 FPO Non-real time communications included in a prospectus or supplementary prospectus or “any other document required or permitted to be published by…prospectus rules under part VI of the Act
Article 71 FPO Limited non-real time communications relating to a prospectus or supplementary prospectuses offering transferable securities (listed or unlisted) (Reference to a “public offer of unlisted securities” in heading is misleading)
Consequences if breach
FSMA s. 25
FSMA s. 30 Unenforceability of agreements resulting from unlawful communications and entitlement to recovery unless court thinks it’s just to enforce (subs (4))
FSMA s 137S If an FCA authorized person has made communication or has appropsed communication which FCA considers would be likely to breach fin promotion rules, regulator can make a direction under this section to require authorized person to inter alia withdraw communication
FSMA s. 400 Offences by bodies corporate under this Act
  1. The Advertisement Regime in the Prospectus Rules

PR 3.3 Who do rules apply to? An advertisement must not be issued if rules apply unless conditions satisfied, and anyways information disclosed must be consistent with prospectus
PR 5.6.3G FCA has power to suspend or prohibit an advertisement. Conditions on when FCA will use powers.
UKLA note: PD Advertisement (See to be printed attachment)
  1. ‘Persons Responsible’ for a prospectus

s. 90 FMSA Must establish whether client is caught in liability “net” under this section
PR 5.5.3R(2)* Sets out long list persons who may be responsible for prospectus
PR 5.5.6 Director NOT responsible if prospectus published without his knowledge or consent and on becoming aware of its publication he a.s.a.p gives reasonable public notice that it was published without his consent. Very unusual in practice.
PR 5.5.3R(2)(f)

Appreciate that reporting accountants could be person responsible for the parts that they produced under Annex I para 23.1 to authorize contents of financial information sections of prospectus

NB: Sponsor not normally person responsible unless he accepts responsibility or authorizes contents.

PR 5.5.8R Save for issuer or directors, can accept responsibility ONLY IN PART
PR 5.5.9R Solicitor in professional capacity NOT RESPONSIBLE
PR App 3.1.1 Requires that prospectus relating to listing of shares contains a declaration of responsibility by those persons who are deemed to be responsible for prospectus by virtue of PR 5.5
LR 8.3.1R General duty of sponsor
LR 8.3.2G FCA expects to communicate with sponsor directly and sponsor remains liable even if relying on statements by applicant or TP
LR 8.4.2 Sponsor must not submit application to FCA unless Sponsor, after having made due and careful inquiry, has satisfied himself that…
S 88 FSMA Definition of Sponsor and in severe cases can cancel authorization of sponsor but must give warning
S 88A FSMA Disciplinary powers: contravention of s. 88(3)(c) or (e). 88A(2) sets out actions can take and s88B requires to give sponsor warning notice of proposed action.
Unhappy sponsor can refer matters to FSA Tribunal
  1. Potential civil and criminal liability relating to share issues

Civil Liability

s. 90 FMSA

s. 90(11)

Most important remedy: powerful and effective for aggrieved investor

Extends remit of s.90 to prospectuses.

Advantages of s.90:

  1. No need to show reliance,...

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