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LPC Law Notes Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes

Secondary Issues Chart Notes

Updated Secondary Issues Chart Notes

Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes

Public Companies and Equity Finance

Approximately 165 pages

A collection of the best LPC Equity Finance notes the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through twenty-nine LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short these are what we believe to be the strongest set of Equity Finance notes available in the UK this year. This collection of notes is fully upd...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Public Companies and Equity Finance Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Secondary Issues

Rights Issue Open Offer Placing Vendor Placing
Definitions An offer to existing security holders to subscribe in proportion to their existing holdings made by the way of the issue of a renounceable letter Invitation to existing shareholders not made by means of a renounceable letter so not tradable An offer by the company to issue new shares and/or an offer by existing shareholders to transfer existing unlisted shares to specified persons or clients of any financial adviser assisting in the placing which does not involve an offer to the public or to existing holders of company’s securities An issue of new shares by the company to the seller of an asset or assets in consideration for the acquisition by the company of that asset or assets (NOT FOR CASH)
  • Shareholdings are not diluted if accepted

  • Lazy shareholders can be paid

  • IPC support

  • No limit on discount that can be offered

  • Shareholders can sell the rights to buy in the PAL

  • Cheaper for the company

  • Shorter time period than for a rights issue as offer period can run concurrently with notice period

  • Might not need a prospectus and this could save costs

  • Smaller group of people – less administration

  • Cheaper for company – limitation on discount

  • Pre-emption rules don’t apply

  • Can take a long time as notice period and offer period cannot run concurrently

  • Costs as underwriting fees are high

  • Shares at a discount can cause market value to fall

  • May still want to dis-apply 561

  • Not tradable- cannot sell the rights to buy

  • Lazy shareholders don’t get money automatically

  • May want to dis-apply 561

  • No more than 10% discount unless within exception – may be less attractive to shareholders

  • IPCs prefer rights issues

  • Dilutes the holding

  • Have to deal with pre-emption rights – dis-apply 561

  • Pre-emption group statement restricting the number of shares at a discount

  • Valuation may be required by 593 if the asset acquired is other than shares

  1. Why offer shares at a discount?

    1. More attractive for existing shareholders to take up the offer

    2. There is no limit on the discount but must be above nominal value in accordance with the CA 2006

  2. Commercial drivers behind a rights issue?

    1. Pay of a debt

    2. Buy an asset

    3. Increase a bank balance

    4. Improve gearing that might enhance the company’s ability to borrow

  3. Risks of a rights issue?

    1. Not all the shares may be taken up

    2. Potential reduction in share price

    3. Company might not pay dividends in the future

    4. No nil-paid rights may develop which can prevent shareholders trading them in the future

  4. Timetable of a rights issue

Date Application
At the latest 10 working days before Impact Day (but probably well before)

Draft Prospectus is submitted to FSA for approval

FSA will approve the Prospectus based on Listing Rules requirements

Day before Impact Day

Board meeting to approve rights issue

Underwriting agreement is signed and held in escrow

Impact Day

The day when the prospectus is published

  • Rights issue is announced to the public by RIS

  • If not signed at BM day before, underwriting agreement signed on Impact Day, but subject to conditions


  • Prospectus is sent out to S/Hs

  • A GM will probably need to be held to pass relevant resolutions (see WS8)

  • Prospectus will therefore include notice of GM

14 clear days (between Impact day and GM)

= 18 calendar days

  • Need to give 14 (s307 CA) clear (s360 CA) days

  • Due to ‘deemed service’ provisions in CA s1147 (and the fact that it’s clear days) the notice period will probably end up being about 18 days

2 business days before D day
  • Issuer applies for admission of shares (nil paid) to Official List and Main Market (LR 3.3.2R)

Detail on the application for admission (not needed in timeline question)

(by submitting ‘48 hour’ documents to FSA under the Listing Rules, and ‘two- day’ documents to the Stock Exchange under the Admission and Disclosure Standard).

General Meeting

GM to pass all resolutions

  • GM is needed to disapply pre-emption rights in relation to fractional and overseas shares + giving directors authority to allot if necessary

  • Need to pass shareholder resolutions e.g.

    • Grant D’s authority to allot

    • Disapply s561

    • Alter AoA (ASC)

Must hold GM before sending out PALs because

FSA cannot make the admission to listing ‘conditional’ upon any event (LR 2.2.2(3)), i.e. it cannot first admit shares to listing and then obtain the necessary resolutions for the rights issue to proceed (i.e. send the PALs to S/Hs)

Immediately following GM

  • PALs will be sent out

  • This is the legal offer of the rights

One business day after GM – D Day


  • Shares are admitted to Listing on the Official List and Trading on the Main Market (nil paid)

  • Trading begins – this is the start of the offer period

  • Nil-paid rights will have been credited to the accounts of qualifying CREST shareholders

10 business days or 14 non-clear/ calendar days after posting of PALs (PALs posted on GM day)

If pre-emption rights NOT disapplied

  • Under LR 9.5.6 a premium listed co. must keep the offer open for a period of minimum 10 business days

  • However, s562(5) CA ’06 states that if a premium listed co. has not disapplied pre-emption rights, the offer must remain open for 14 (not clear) days

  • The longer of the two prevails. As 10 business days is longer than 14 not clear days, the rule under LR 9.5.6 applies and the offer must be kept open for a minimum of 10 business days

If pre-emption rights are disapplied

  • Under LR 9.5.6 a premium listed co. must keep the offer open for a period of minimum 10 business days

NB. Under a rights issue most co.s will want to disapply the pre-emption rights because of fractional...

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