This is an extract of our Diseases Of The Pleura And Mediastinum document, which we sell as part of our Small Animal Internal Disease - Respiratory Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Veterinary Medicine And Pharmacy Of Kosice, Slovakia students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Small Animal Internal Disease - Respiratory Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Q17. Diseases of the Pleura and Mediastinum Pleural Effusion (PE) PE is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (the space between the lungs an the chest wall). Normally, there is some fluid there, which lubricates the surfaces and prevents friction, however, an increase in production or decrease in removal results in accumulation - which can restrict the lungs. PE is a pathological process, rather than a specific diagnosis. Diseases which can cause pleural effusion include
* Heart failure
* Infection (pyothorax)
* Neoplasia (hemangiosarcoma, mammary gland tumors, lymphosarcoma)
* Liver disease or gastrointestinal disease if the blood protein levels become severely low
* Tachypnea, shallow respiration, respiratory distress
* Decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected areas, and/or increased bronchovesicular sounds in the nonaffected areas.
* Hyporesonance on percussion, with detection of a fluid line.
* Cough due to other diseases
* Systemic illness, clinical findings of other diseases - pneumonia, lung cancer Diagnosis Thoracocentesis - also therapeutic benefit. For cytology, protein concentration and total nucleated cell count. Xray - Pleural effusion is seen as a white area which can obscure the sillouette of the heart. X rays should be taken again after removal of the fluid. USG - for the presence of fluid and can also use it to guide needles for thoracocentesis
Treatment Drain the effusion, but find out what the primary cause is, and treat that. Types of Fluid The type of fluid can indicate which disease is likely causing the pleural effusion; Fluid
What is it
low protein conc and low numbers of MO, LO, mesothelial cells
Increased hydrostatic pressure; Right side CHF Pericardial disease Decreased oncotoc pressure; Hypoalbuminaemia Lymphatic Obstruction; Diaphragmatic hernia Neoplasia (rare)
slightly higher protein conc and cell count which includes NO and Mononuclear cells
High protein conc, with No, Eo, Mo and Lo
FIP Neoplasia Chronic diaphragmatic hernia Torsion of a lung lobe
Extremely high cell count with mainly degenerative neutrophils, and bacteria
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