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The New Imperialism Of The 19 Century Revision Notes

History Notes > Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes

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The New Imperialism of the 19th Century New Imperialism:'New Imperialism' refers to the policy of colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers during the 19th and early 20th centuriesDistinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of territory overseasCountries focused on building their empire with new technological advances and developments, making their country bigger through conquest, and exploiting their new resourcesAfter the repeal of the Corn Laws the UK began to adopt and pursue the concept of free tradeDuring the Congress of Vienna and the end of the Franco-Prussian war the Industrial Revolution in Britain allowed it to reap the benefits of being the only modern industrial power in the world

The Berlin Conference:1884-85Attempted to regulate colonial competition between European powers by defining 'effective occupation' as the internationally recognised technique of expansion oSpecifically in Africa

Made it easier for Germany to participate in colonisation

Social implications of New Imperialism:-

"Take up the White Man's burden" o

Bringing European civilisation to the other peoples of the world, regardless of whether these indigenous cultures desired this civilisation or not


Exemplifies British colonisation

Emergence of Social Darwinism throughout Western Europe and the USA oIdeology applying the principles of Darwinism (natural selection, survival of the fittest) to sociology and politics, with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones

The use of Jingoism o

Extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy


Used to gain support of a majority of the working class


Promoted jingoism in the Spanish-American war, the Second Boer War and the Boxer Rebellion

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