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The Twenty Years Crisis Revision Notes

History Notes > Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes

This is an extract of our The Twenty Years Crisis Revision document, which we sell as part of our Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

HISTORY REVISION

The Twenty Years Crisis: Paris Peace Settlement and its Breakdown 1919-39 Lecture: The Paris Peace Treaties:Versailles (28 June 1919) - GermanySt Germain-en-Laye (10 Sep 1919) - AustriaNeuilly-sur-Seine (27 Nov 1919) - BulgariaTrianon (2 June 1920) - HungarySevres (10 Aug 1920) - Ottoman Empire o

Replaced by Lousanne (1923)

A Democratic Peace:Based on Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and national self-determinationThe Weimar Republic was established, forging a democratically run GermanyCreated the League of Nations, based on a belief in collective security o

America did not join the League of Nations, drastically weakening it from the start

Weaknesses of Paris Settlement:The League of Nations was linked to vindictive treaties o

Germany saw it as a hostile measure

o

Germany were not included in the LoNUS and Italy alienatedBolshevik menace o

European countries wanted to maintain a fairly strong Germany to act as a buffer against the communist ideology in the EastAustria and Hungary reduced, reliant on Germany in central EuropeTurkey later showed the settlement could be broken o

Chanak Crisis, 1922Turkish troops threatened to attack British and French troops guarding a neutral zoneBritish handled the situation badly; contributed to the downfall of Lloyd George; Canada acted diplomatically independently of the UK

HISTORY REVISION Treaty of Versailles:-

Too harsh?
o

Loss of German colonies

o

Loss of German European territory

o

Rhineland demilitarised

o

Anschluss with Austria forbidden

o

Armed forces limited and no air force allowed

o

War guilt clause

o

Reparations to the allies

Or too lenient?
o

The Rhineland was not separated from Germany (subsequently remilitarised in 1936)

o

Anschluss with Austria later occurred (1938)

o

Military restrictions were broken (Rapallo, 1922)

o

Germany could pay the reparations bill

o

Germany maintained its status as a major European power

The Locarno Era:Treaty of Locarno 1925 oFixed Western borders and created a system of arbitration on the East

Kellogg-Briand pact 1928 o

Outlawed war as means to resolve disputes

Eastern Europe:Paris settlement created the Polish corridorBritain unwilling to guarantee Eastern borders at LocarnoFrance made separate treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia o

Little entente states

The Slump:US retreated deeper into isolation; public opinion was that they should have no involvement in European disputes

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