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The Twenty Years Crisis Revision Notes

History Notes > Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes

This is an extract of our The Twenty Years Crisis Revision document, which we sell as part of our Roads to Modernity 1789-1945 Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Nottingham students.

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The Twenty Years Crisis: Paris Peace Settlement and its Breakdown 1919-39 Lecture: The Paris Peace Treaties:Versailles (28 June 1919) - GermanySt Germain-en-Laye (10 Sep 1919) - AustriaNeuilly-sur-Seine (27 Nov 1919) - BulgariaTrianon (2 June 1920) - HungarySevres (10 Aug 1920) - Ottoman Empire o

Replaced by Lousanne (1923)

A Democratic Peace:Based on Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and national self-determinationThe Weimar Republic was established, forging a democratically run GermanyCreated the League of Nations, based on a belief in collective security o

America did not join the League of Nations, drastically weakening it from the start

Weaknesses of Paris Settlement:The League of Nations was linked to vindictive treaties o

Germany saw it as a hostile measure


Germany were not included in the LoNUS and Italy alienatedBolshevik menace o

European countries wanted to maintain a fairly strong Germany to act as a buffer against the communist ideology in the EastAustria and Hungary reduced, reliant on Germany in central EuropeTurkey later showed the settlement could be broken o

Chanak Crisis, 1922Turkish troops threatened to attack British and French troops guarding a neutral zoneBritish handled the situation badly; contributed to the downfall of Lloyd George; Canada acted diplomatically independently of the UK

HISTORY REVISION Treaty of Versailles:-

Too harsh?

Loss of German colonies


Loss of German European territory


Rhineland demilitarised


Anschluss with Austria forbidden


Armed forces limited and no air force allowed


War guilt clause


Reparations to the allies

Or too lenient?

The Rhineland was not separated from Germany (subsequently remilitarised in 1936)


Anschluss with Austria later occurred (1938)


Military restrictions were broken (Rapallo, 1922)


Germany could pay the reparations bill


Germany maintained its status as a major European power

The Locarno Era:Treaty of Locarno 1925 oFixed Western borders and created a system of arbitration on the East

Kellogg-Briand pact 1928 o

Outlawed war as means to resolve disputes

Eastern Europe:Paris settlement created the Polish corridorBritain unwilling to guarantee Eastern borders at LocarnoFrance made separate treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia o

Little entente states

The Slump:US retreated deeper into isolation; public opinion was that they should have no involvement in European disputes

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