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The Twenty Years Crisis Revision Notes

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The Twenty Years Crisis Revision Revision

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HISTORY REVISION

The Twenty Years Crisis: Paris Peace Settlement and its Breakdown 1919-39 Lecture: The Paris Peace Treaties:
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Versailles (28 June 1919) - Germany

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St Germain-en-Laye (10 Sep 1919) - Austria

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Neuilly-sur-Seine (27 Nov 1919) - Bulgaria

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Trianon (2 June 1920) - Hungary

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Sevres (10 Aug 1920) - Ottoman Empire o

Replaced by Lousanne (1923)

A Democratic Peace:
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Based on Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and national self-determination

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The Weimar Republic was established, forging a democratically run Germany

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Created the League of Nations, based on a belief in collective security o

America did not join the League of Nations, drastically weakening it from the start

Weaknesses of Paris Settlement:
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The League of Nations was linked to vindictive treaties o

Germany saw it as a hostile measure

o

Germany were not included in the LoN

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US and Italy alienated

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Bolshevik menace o

European countries wanted to maintain a fairly strong Germany to act as a buffer against the communist ideology in the East

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Austria and Hungary reduced, reliant on Germany in central Europe

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Turkey later showed the settlement could be broken o

Chanak Crisis, 1922

Turkish troops threatened to attack British and French troops guarding a neutral zone

British handled the situation badly; contributed to the downfall of Lloyd George; Canada acted diplomatically independently of the UK

HISTORY REVISION Treaty of Versailles:
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Too harsh?
o o

Loss of German European territory

o

Rhineland demilitarised

o

Anschluss with Austria forbidden

o

Armed forces limited and no air force allowed

o

War guilt clause

o
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Loss of German colonies

Reparations to the allies

Or too lenient?
o

The Rhineland was not separated from Germany (subsequently remilitarised in 1936)

o

Anschluss with Austria later occurred (1938)

o

Military restrictions were broken (Rapallo, 1922)

o

Germany could pay the reparations bill

o

Germany maintained its status as a major European power

The Locarno Era:
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Treaty of Locarno 1925 o

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Fixed Western borders and created a system of arbitration on the East

Kellogg-Briand pact 1928 o

Outlawed war as means to resolve disputes

Eastern Europe:
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Paris settlement created the Polish corridor

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Britain unwilling to guarantee Eastern borders at Locarno

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France made separate treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia o

Little entente states

The Slump:
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US retreated deeper into isolation; public opinion was that they should have no involvement in European disputes

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