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Upper Airway Infections Notes

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Lecture 10 Upper airway infections




The "respiratory viruses" o Rhinovirus (group of heterogenous viruses-"cold") o Parainfluenza (effects upper & lower RT) o Influenza o Respiratory syncytial virus (paediatrics, causes bronchitis, wheezing) o Adenovirus (can cause conjunctivitis) o Other URTI viral culprits
? Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (DNA viruses, long term infections)
? Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) (Glandular fever)
? Enteroviruses (Coxsackie, Echo, Polio) (does not cause gastroenteritis
[rotavirus], faeco-orally transmitted) Bacteria o Shape
? Cocci- round
? Bacilli- rods o "Nasal" bacteria
? Haemophilus influenza Gneg c/b
? Streptococcus pneumoniae Gpos c
? Branhamella/Moraxella catarrhalis Gneg c (rarely invasive disease, kids)
? Staphylococcus aureus Gpos C (skin & back of nose)
? Bordetella pertussis Gneg b o "Throat"/"Mouth" bacteria
? Streptococcus pyogenes (Gp A beta haemolytic strep=nose) Gpos C (sore throat)
? Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gpos b
? Alpha haemolytic streptococci (many species) Gpos c (holes in teeth, endocarditis causer)
? "Anaerobes" e.g. peptococcus, bacteroides. Usually Gpos Syndromes o RHINITIS- Common Cold
? Winter time epidemics (don't understand seasonality, not temperature)
? Remedies- 100s on offer, none work o INFLUENZA
? Types A & B (two of both)
? Virus can jump species
? Yearly epidemics (drift)/occasional pandemics (shift)
? Mortality principally in elderly
? Transmission principally in children (vaccinate kids instead of elderly, US)
? In children: otitis media, febrile fits o STOMATITIS
? Viral- primary HSV, enteroviruses
? Perioral- recurrent HSV, impetigo (GP A strep, Staph)
? Ulcers in mouth, cold sores, impetigo (HSV or staph. infection on face) o SINUSITIS
? Difficult diagnosis, variably made
? Rhinorrhoea +/- abnormal x-rays
? Presumed bacterial- treated with antibiotics
? Maxillary sinusitis x-ray=asymmetrical, cerebral abscess

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