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Upper Airway Infections Notes

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Lecture 10 Upper airway infections

The "respiratory viruses" o Rhinovirus (group of heterogenous viruses-"cold") o Parainfluenza (effects upper & lower RT) o Influenza o Respiratory syncytial virus (paediatrics, causes bronchitis, wheezing) o Adenovirus (can cause conjunctivitis) o Other URTI viral culprits
 Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (DNA viruses, long term infections)
 Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) (Glandular fever)
 Enteroviruses (Coxsackie, Echo, Polio) (does not cause gastroenteritis
[rotavirus], faeco-orally transmitted) Bacteria o Shape
 Cocci- round
 Bacilli- rods o "Nasal" bacteria
 Haemophilus influenza Gneg c/b
 Streptococcus pneumoniae Gpos c
 Branhamella/Moraxella catarrhalis Gneg c (rarely invasive disease, kids)
 Staphylococcus aureus Gpos C (skin & back of nose)
 Bordetella pertussis Gneg b o "Throat"/"Mouth" bacteria
 Streptococcus pyogenes (Gp A beta haemolytic strep=nose) Gpos C (sore throat)
 Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gpos b
 Alpha haemolytic streptococci (many species) Gpos c (holes in teeth, endocarditis causer)
 "Anaerobes" e.g. peptococcus, bacteroides. Usually Gpos Syndromes o RHINITIS- Common Cold
 Winter time epidemics (don't understand seasonality, not temperature)
 Remedies- 100s on offer, none work o INFLUENZA
 Types A & B (two of both)
 Virus can jump species
 Yearly epidemics (drift)/occasional pandemics (shift)
 Mortality principally in elderly
 Transmission principally in children (vaccinate kids instead of elderly, US)
 In children: otitis media, febrile fits o STOMATITIS
 Viral- primary HSV, enteroviruses
 Perioral- recurrent HSV, impetigo (GP A strep, Staph)
 Ulcers in mouth, cold sores, impetigo (HSV or staph. infection on face) o SINUSITIS
 Difficult diagnosis, variably made
 Rhinorrhoea +/- abnormal x-rays
 Presumed bacterial- treated with antibiotics
 Maxillary sinusitis x-ray=asymmetrical, cerebral abscess

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