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Upper Airway Infections Notes

Medicine Notes > Respiratory System Notes

This is an extract of our Upper Airway Infections document, which we sell as part of our Respiratory System Notes collection written by the top tier of Bristol University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Respiratory System Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Lecture 10 Upper airway infections

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The "respiratory viruses" o Rhinovirus (group of heterogenous viruses-"cold") o Parainfluenza (effects upper & lower RT) o Influenza o Respiratory syncytial virus (paediatrics, causes bronchitis, wheezing) o Adenovirus (can cause conjunctivitis) o Other URTI viral culprits
? Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (DNA viruses, long term infections)
? Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) (Glandular fever)
? Enteroviruses (Coxsackie, Echo, Polio) (does not cause gastroenteritis
[rotavirus], faeco-orally transmitted) Bacteria o Shape
? Cocci- round
? Bacilli- rods o "Nasal" bacteria
? Haemophilus influenza Gneg c/b
? Streptococcus pneumoniae Gpos c
? Branhamella/Moraxella catarrhalis Gneg c (rarely invasive disease, kids)
? Staphylococcus aureus Gpos C (skin & back of nose)
? Bordetella pertussis Gneg b o "Throat"/"Mouth" bacteria
? Streptococcus pyogenes (Gp A beta haemolytic strep=nose) Gpos C (sore throat)
? Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gpos b
? Alpha haemolytic streptococci (many species) Gpos c (holes in teeth, endocarditis causer)
? "Anaerobes" e.g. peptococcus, bacteroides. Usually Gpos Syndromes o RHINITIS- Common Cold
? Winter time epidemics (don't understand seasonality, not temperature)
? Remedies- 100s on offer, none work o INFLUENZA
? Types A & B (two of both)
? Virus can jump species
? Yearly epidemics (drift)/occasional pandemics (shift)
? Mortality principally in elderly
? Transmission principally in children (vaccinate kids instead of elderly, US)
? In children: otitis media, febrile fits o STOMATITIS
? Viral- primary HSV, enteroviruses
? Perioral- recurrent HSV, impetigo (GP A strep, Staph)
? Ulcers in mouth, cold sores, impetigo (HSV or staph. infection on face) o SINUSITIS
? Difficult diagnosis, variably made
? Rhinorrhoea +/- abnormal x-rays
? Presumed bacterial- treated with antibiotics
? Maxillary sinusitis x-ray=asymmetrical, cerebral abscess

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