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Skin Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 8 page long Skin notes, which we sell as part of the Organisation of the Body Notes collection, a First package written at Oxford in 2014 that contains (approximately) 257 pages of notes across 38 different documents.

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SKIN
-Large organ, covers the exterior surface of the body Functions
-protection-protects the body from damaging external agents such as the
-UV
-infection-barrier to bacteria, fungus- both bacteria and fungus live on skin surface but can't penetrate tissue unless skin is breached
-excessive wetting
-mechanical insults- frictional forces experienced by soles/ventral aspect of toes
-detection of sensory stimuli- skin is the largest sensory organ and has different receptors-touch, pressure, pain, temperature
-thermoregulation- skin plays an important role in heat conservation. To loose heat, increase blood flow through rich vascular network in skin and secretion of sweat- a watery secretion of eccrine glands onto skin surface and evapouration produces a cooling effect.
-prevention of dehydration
-metabolic functions- synthesis of vitamin D3 occurs in the skin, adipose tissue stores TG Development
-epidermis formed from the ectodermal gern layer, dermis is formed from the mesoderm
-ectoderm is initially a single layer then divides into a bilaminar- outerperiderm, epidermis proper
-epidermis proper forms all 4 layers of the mature epidermis, periderm is a temporary protective membrane
-after 2 months of fertilisation, the ectodermal epidermis is invaded by cells of the neural crest region- melanocytes
-Hair forms afterwards- epithelial downgrowth into dermis
-sweat glands grow down from the epidermis, sebaceous glands formed as epithelial buds from the hair follicle
-by sixth month, periderm has keratinised and is desqumated. Structure
-specialised epithelium which has glands (sweat glands, sebaceous glands-lubricate an oily matter(sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair, mammary glands). The specialised epithelial tissue also is associated with supporting tissue
-skin is arranged in layers

-epidermis (outermost layer)
-dermis
-subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis)
-the relative thickness of these layers is dependent on the area of the body and reates to specific functional specialisations; Epidermis
-surface layer of skin cells that are in contact with the external environment
-there is a constant need to replenish the epidermis, as outer surface is constantly sloughed off, so the basal layers are constantly proliferating to replace the dead cells
-sweat glands and hair follicles are down growths of this layer Structure of the epidermis

DRAW LABELLED DIAGRAM IN EXAM

-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium-keratinocytes tough keratinised upper layer formed by keratinocytes which die and produce keratin plates (squames). The outermost layer of keratin is shed and replaced by new keratinocytes from deeper layers
-the epidermis has distinct layers
-the thickness of the skin is classified according to the thickness epidermis. Thick skin has a deeper stratum corneum, stratum granulosum and stratum lucidum. Found in areas which are most exposed to abrasive forces (palm of hands, soles of feet) a) stratrum basale (basal layer)
-the low cuboidal keratinocytes express small amount of specific keratin isoforms which aggregate to form tonofilaments-merge into desmosmessingle layer of cuboidal/columnar cells attached to each other via

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