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Connective Tissue Notes

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Connective Tissue Revision

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Connective tissue Definition: association of the extracellular matrix and the various cell types within it. It varies in type and amount in different locations of the body. Functions: Mechanical
-supporting matrix for highly organised structures such as the blood, nerve, lymp
-force transmitter- tendon-MUSCLE to bone, ligaments- bone to bone
-facilitates movement between structures Metabolic
-route for exchange between metabolites and regulatory molecules- between the blood and tissues between blood and tissues
-storage of fat- subcutaneous and mesentries Defense
-fat in the superficial fascia forms an insulating layer. Fat in the loculi of loose connective tissue of the dermis provides cushioning and padding
-Inflammation- macrophages and mast cells of the connective tissue- inflammationlocal response to bacteria Repair- after injury fibroblasts lay down collagen fibres- scar tissue STRUCTURE
-cells Fibroblasts-STRUCTURAL ROLE: embryonic mesenchyme- secrete most of the extracellular matrix components (fibres and ground substancs)
-GAG, PROTEOGLYCANS, COLLAGEN, ELASTIC, GLYCOPROTEINS , GROWTH FACTORS
-Secrete fibroblast growth factors- mutation in FGF3R leads to Achondroplasia
-plays a role in wound healing
-active and quiescent forms are distinct-active fibroblasts have euchromatin and a prominent nucleolus and ovid shaped nuclei
-queicsent fibroblasts have fusiform cells, less ERcytoplasm is elongated into a thin line
-Secretes glycogen in a particular orientation Macrophages: DEFENCE-phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine secretion
- resident phagocytic cells- blood monocytes-engulf and remove invading organisms and dead cells- secrete cytokines the local inflammatory response - recruit other phagocytic cells such as leucocytes from the blood stream
-specialised roles in certain tissues: Kuppfer cells (liver), microgilia (CNS), Langerhan's cells (epidermis),osteoclasts in bone

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