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Nephrology Notes

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Haematuria Indications for escalating investigations in haematuria:
..NICE say to refer to urology if painless macroscopic haematuria, more than forty years with persistent UTI, more than fifth with explained microscopic haematuria, if you can palpate a mass linked to a urinary tract.
..Refer to renal: eGFR going down quicker than would expect with age, significant amount of protein in urine = ratio >50, HTN with ?renal cause, frank haematuria and infection.
..Complications of cystoscopy: infection, abdo pain, incontinence, haematuria, bladder spasm

..Definition: excess protein in urine. Normal <1.5g per day. Significant proteinuria is greater than 1g per day.
..US stats: men more than women, as more likely to be renal patients.
..likely to be transient. Dip again. Three consecutive?refer.
..Does affect certain ethnic groups: Blacks have high incidence of glomerular disease.
..Aetiology: 4 types. 1) transient 2) orthostatic 3) persistent due to extra-renal disease (normal renal function) 4) due to renal disease, persistent

1. Transient: doesn't indicate any underlying renal disease, really low protein output, no there when test again, normal BP, no casts, no oedema. Causes: fever, exercise.

2. Orthostatic: thin, young adolescents, adults under thirty, prolonged standing - not in morning on urine sample, then have proteinuria at night. take urine samples before exercise to avoid transient proteinuria sampling.

3. Persistent, need three positive samples on dipstick to say this. Extra-renal, so BP normal etc. no oedema. Causes: overproduction of plasma proteins e.g. amylase in pancreatitis, Bence-Jones proteins in myeloma, haemoglobin after haemolytic anaemia, myoglobin after rhabdomyolysis.

4. Persistent due to renal disease, more than 500mg/day in urine. Active=casts, bland=nothing special in sediment. Lipids in urine, oedema, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension. Causes: macroscopic and microscopic causes of proteinuria.
..Primary=defect in basement membrane.
..Secondary=damage due to system disease





transient might have a hx of fever or exercise


urine appearance (frothy)


swelling in ankles, periorbital, genital.

..Exam: check fluid status. Signs of systemic diseases. BP and palpate kidneys.
..Ix: urine, bloods, imaging, biopsy.
..Urine & Bloods: Urinalysis & microscopy would do 3 times if you want to show it's persistent. Dipstick very sensitive if macroalbuminuria, not good in microalbuminuria. 24hour urine collection to quantify urine protein and also you would do a creatinine:protein ratio. Look for proteins, casts, bacteriuria. Early morning/later split collection looking for orthostatic. General renal disease bloods, immunology if ?rheumatology. Hep B causes nephrotic syndrome.
..Imaging: kidney ultrasound
..Biopsy: persistent proteinuria, abnormal imaging, haematuria, more than 1g per day of protein or reduced renal function.
..If necessary can do plasmapheresis.
..CXR if cardiac enlargement, sarcoid, 'cannonball' metastases from kidney cancer.
..PHAROAH for nephritic syndrome:






increased nitrogen (alturia)


renal casts


oedema or oliguria (as oedema more marked in nephrotic syndrome)


anti-streptococcal titres



..Rx: depends on cause. So does prognosis. If transient or orthostatic it's benign so leave it. ..Complications of renal disease:


fluid overload,


pulmonary oedema,

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