This is an extract of our Mortgages document, which we sell as part of our GDL Land Law Notes collection written by the top tier of Cambridge/Bpp/College Of Law students.
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Connector between registration and co-ownership. A common law creation.
Very little risk in a mortgage (interest rates usually down at 2.25%)
o Unless you over lend (e.g. Northern Rock lent over the value of the land)
Essay questions usually about the extent to which borrowers and lenders' remedies can be challenged.
A mortgage is a proprietary interest in the land given by the mortgagor (land owner) as a security for a loan.
o Stanley v Wilde defined as 'a conveyance of land…as a security for the payment of a debt or the discharge of some other obligation.'
o As a contract many contractual elements and contractual remedies, but also proprietary elements with proprietary remedies.
Re-mortgage: replacing one lender with another.
Second mortgage: successive loans with different people, the more distant the lender is from the first mortgage the higher the rate of interest
Creation of a mortgage
Historically, mortgages were created by the giving of a long lease of the land from the borrower to the lender - not dissimilar today (Stanley v Wilde: conveyance) - 3,000 year lease (under LPA 1925, s 85)
o A mortgage is an interest capable of being legal (s.1(2)(c)
o Must be registered on the charges register in order to be protected from buyer (s.27(2)(f) LRA 2002))
The creation and redemption of mortgages is likely to be the first use of electronic conveyancing in this jurisdiction
Discharge of mortgages can already be done electronically,
Equitable mortgages can be created in a number of ways:
o Failure to register charge by deed by way of a mortgage.
Must be created by a written agreement (s.2 LPA 1989)
signed by both parties containing all agreed terms.
o If the land owner only has an equitable interest then it will only be an equitable mortgage (rare in reality)
o Where the borrower could have created a legal mortgage, but
(usually) wants a very short-term, low value loan (this is the most common form of equitable mortgage)
Again must comply with s.2 LPA 1989
Mortgage arising from a purely oral transaction - rare in reality, common in exams
In truly exceptional circumstances, the law of proprietary estoppel may kick in and the court may
award the lender an equitable mortgage by estoppel
(Kinane v. Conteh)
This would only happen where the borrower has generated unconscionability in the lender
Problems with equitable lenders:
o Vulnerable if the land is sold - needs to register the interest
(if so why not just register as deed)
o Vulnerable to fraud: If one party impersonates another, or forges a signature - the legal owners have not executed the charge, invalidating it - if it is registered, it has validity from its registration
When it is removed, it is no longer valid, defaults to an equitable mortgage over the share of the person who genuinely signed it
This is the order in which most remedies will pursue their remedies in relation to a residential property (commercial property, 'power to appoint receiver' would mostly come first).
o 1) Right to possession
2) Power of sale
3) Action to sue for the mortgage debt
4) Power to appoint receiver (not generally needed for residential property)
o 5) Foreclosure (redundant - could be abolished with zero impact, but no one can be bothered).
These remedies are not mutually exclusive: Alliance and
Leicester PLC v Slayford, if you cannot get one of these remedies then the other options are still available.
The lender can never recover more than the sum owed.
o Cannot make profit out of exercising their remedies.
o Money owed is three parts:
The interest of the debt
The principle debt
The cost of exercising these remedies 1) Right to Possession
It is a right and not a remedy - this means that it does not depend on default (unless lender states it should)
o Exists from day one of the mortgage irrespective of default
(recall a mortgage is equivalent to 3,000year lease)
Four-Maids v Dudley Marshall: a lender can take possession "as soon as the ink is dry"
o Default occurs when:
Not paying the sum in full when demanded
Not paying and instalment when due.
Breaching some other term of the mortgage
(inadequate insurance, subletting etc.)
o The lender can exercise the right without a court order: Ropaigealach v Barclays Bank (1994) - The plaintiff was not residing in the property at the time when the defendant took possession and sold the property at auction, held no need for a court order
Cannot use force to enter/evict - S.6 Criminal Law Act 1977
Instead most lenders apply for a court order:
Do NOT need to justify why you want possession.
Borrower must identify a specific statutory provision in orde rot challenge.
Human Rights are not compromised (FJM v UK in
ECtHU - held that tenants in private housing cannot raise a proportionality defence under Art 8 (right to home))
o Risk: lender taking possession must account for all profits made.
White v City of London Brewery
Duty to use the land to generate income to pay the mortgage (in residential there is usually a sale to discharge this duty).
If possession is taken of the pub and make 3k, but should have made 6k, then the lender must credit to the borrower 6k.
o The Borrower's Challenges Against Taking Possession:
1) Check whether the mortgagee has limited their right to possession by contract.
2) Remember the (currently very remote) possibility of
Human Rights in public housing, not so much in private: FJM v UK
3) Some single topic statutory jurisdictions which must be satisfied before possession
These are not on syllabus, e.g. Housing Act 1988 and Rent Act 1977
4) A lender cannot exercise the right to possession when they have lost priority to an overriding interest.
Williams & Glyn's Bank v Boland - Mrs Boland had overriding interest
Lender will want to overreach if they can to give them the priority (City of London Building
Society v Flegg)
o This prevents the right to possession, but the lender can still apply for a remedy under the TOLATA.
5) A borrower who is able to immediately redeem the entirety of the mortgage can apply for a stay of possession.
Birmingham Permanent Building Society (BPBS)
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