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LPC Law Notes International Commercial Law Notes

Brussels I Rome I Notes

Updated Brussels I Rome I Notes

International Commercial Law Notes

International Commercial Law

Approximately 179 pages

A collection of the best notes for new University of Law module 'International Commercial Law' the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short, these are what we believe to be the strongest set of International Commercial Law notes available...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our International Commercial Law Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

BASIC RULE = Defendant is sued in the courts of her home country (Art. 4) unless an Exception applies:

Exceptions = Contracts, Torts, situation where the Defendant has a local branch office, real property, companies, intellectual property rights (IP), insurance, consumer contracts, and employment matters

By Art.23 Basic Rule CAN be contracted out by agreement but must be

  • In writing or

  • in a form according with practices which parties established between themselves

  • form widely used or acknowledged in trade (25(1)(a-c));


Art.7(1)(a) Contract: if contract matter, can sue D in MS where contract should have been performed

Art.7(1)(b) Sales of Goods Contract: presumed that “place of performance of obligation” is MS where goods were / should have been delivered (see Electrosteel judgment below)

Art.7(2) Tort: D may be sued in MS where harmful event occurred / may occur

Art.7(5) Branch Office: if D has a branch or office in another MS D may be sued there if dispute arises out of the operations of that branch or office.

By Art.25 Rules on General and Special Jurisdiction CAN be contracted out; sets out formal requirements (in writing etc)

EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION: OVERRIDES the Basic Rule and Special Jurisdiction

Art. 2 Land / tenancies: MS where land is situated has exclusive jurisdiction

Art. 2 Constitution or dissolution of Co.’s: MS where Co. has it seat (i.e. Reg Office)

Art. 2 IP Rights: registration or validity of IP rights, MS where rights are registered or applied for

By Art.24 Exclusive Jurisdiction CANNOT be contracted out (ltd for insurance, consumer and employment contracts)

THE WEAK PARTY (less economic power):

Art. 17-19: Special rules for insurance, consumer and employment contracts

Art. 17-19: Weak party can generally only be sued in his own courts BUT is given choice as to whether wishes to sue in own courts or other party’s courts

Applies to eCommerce (i.e. internet seller can be sued anywhere); businesses control this by refusing to sell / deliver goods to certain jurisdictions

By Art.23 CAN be contracted out


By Art.29 Court first involved in proceedings (first seised) will have jurisdiction unless it declines

By Art. 31(2) If parties select jurisdiction under Art. 25, court may hear case if not first seised

By Arts. 36-37 Judgements in MS must be recognised+enforced, w/ some exceptions (see chart)


3 circumstances in which English courts may have jurisdiction:

a) if claim form is served on D whilst she is physically in jurisdiction

b) if D submits to jurisdiction of English courts

c) if courts authorise service of claim form out of jurisdiction

ELECTROSTEEL Europe SA v Edil Centro

Correct interpretation of expression ‘place of performance of the obligation in question’, found in the first indent of art 5(1)(b): unless otherwise agreed, the court must take account of all relevant terms and conditions ‘under the contract’, including INCOTERMS; if not possible to determine on that basis, place of delivery is where physical transfer took place.

Rome I Regulation 593/2008 = Law

APPLICATION = Art. 1(2) no need for parties to be EU national / domiciled in EU; Rome I does not apply to wills and probate and matters governed by Co. law

BASIC RULE = Art. 3(1) Ps can choose Law of Contract expressly or impliedly; if so, it governs contract

  • BUT Art. 3(3) Ps choice of law cannot be “shopped around”; there should be a commercial connection with the chosen Law (also by Art. 4(4) court may apply law of MS where contract is more closely connected)

Art.4 Where Ps failed to choose law Rome I will apply; law of contract is MS where S has his habitual residence UNLESS B is a consumer Art.6 (i.e. B’s MS law will apply if B is a consumer)

PRESUMPTION = Art. 4(1) states presumption of whose laws will apply to each Type of contract:

Art 4(1(a) Sale of Goods Contract = law where S has place of habitual residence

Art 4(1)(b) Sale of Services Contract = law where service provides has place of habitual residence

Art.4(1)(c) Immovable Property = law of MS where property located will apply; not appl. to contracts for repair / construction

Art. 4(1)(e) Franchise Agreement = law where franchisor has...

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