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LPC Law Notes International Commercial Law Notes

Sale Of Goods Terms Internationally Notes

Updated Sale Of Goods Terms Internationally Notes

International Commercial Law Notes

International Commercial Law

Approximately 179 pages

A collection of the best notes for new University of Law module 'International Commercial Law' the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short, these are what we believe to be the strongest set of International Commercial Law notes available...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our International Commercial Law Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Part 1 (Report on the Case)

This part of the question asks for a report. The purpose was simply to state that in an exam question, there may be a dispute of terms and Choice of Jurisdiction and I may be asked to determine where Delivery took place where an INCOTERM was incorporated into the contract. The answer should therefore incorporate the case law in Electrosteel with reference to Brussels I Article 5(1)(b) is that:

Under Electrosteel Europe sa v Edil Centro SpA the place of deliver under Brussels I Article 5(1)(b) is:

  • As expressly stated in the contract (including any incoterm to which the contract refers); or

  • If this is not clear from the contract itself, place of delivery shall be the place of physical delivery into the buyer’s hands.

Part 2


Thus, this part of the question puts into practical context the Case of Electrosteel with reference to Jurisdiction:

Electrosteel states that Jurisdiction is determined as expressly stated in the contract including any INCOTERMS, the INCOTERM here is CIF and legal delivery of the goods passes to the buyer on physical delivery on board of the ship, on the facts this is Scheldemond UK. Therefore, the jurisdiction under Brussels I Article 5(1)(b) the contract is UK.


  1. Allow proceedings to start in Holland and then contest the Jurisdiction under Article 5(1)(b) which states that jurisdiction is where delivery happened. Under the CIF INCOTERM incorporated into the contract delivery took place in the UK and thus, Jurisdiction is the UK. Moreover, under Brussels I, Article 2 the defendant is to be sued in his home country. In this case the UK.

  2. Issue proceedings in the UK in an “Action for the Price” either under the contract or under s.49 SGA.

  3. Negotiate with the client by offering them a discount or waive the payment.


Rome I and Brussels I (Including relevant case law i.e. Electrosteel (For the purposes of Brussels Art 5(1)(b): the place of delivery is that stated in the contract including any INCOTERMS that the contract may contain. If the contract is silent or unclear as to place of deliver, delivery will be the place of physical delivery)

  • could you apply them to a given fact pattern?

Vienna Convention (CISG), UCC, PECL and UNIDROIT principles:

  • When do they apply:

  • e.g. is it where parties have businesses base in relevant states?

  • Express inclusion/exclusion? Etc…

  • Effect of the main provisions (as outlined in i-tutorial)

  • e.g. quality, description, exclusions, good faith


Vienna Convention (CISG)
  • Worldwide agreement covering sales of goods contracts.

  • Covers 80 signatory countries (at present, UK not a signatory or member state);

  • The CISG Will be incorporated into a contract if:

  1. The parties are from signatory countries; or

  2. The parties have chosen a law for the contract which is of a signatory country & have chosen not to opt out of its provisions.

  3. When the rules of private international law lead to application of a contracting state


  • Sets out rules and obligations of B and S

  • Supplies “gap filling” rules governing the formation of the contract.

Description/ quality Exclusion of liability
  • Under CISG Article 35;

  • “the goods supplied bust be of the quantity, quality & description required by contract”.

  • Except where the P’s have agreed otherwise the Goods do not conform with contract unless they are:

  1. Fit for purpose for which goods of same description would ordinarily be used;

  2. Fit for any purpose expressly/ impliedly made known to seller at the time of conclusion of the contract;

  3. Possess the qualities of goods which seller has held out to buyer as a sample.

  • Greater emphasis for goods to be fit for purpose and compliance with samples. (In E-Law is s14(3) and s.15 of SGA respectively)

  • The parties may agree different terms to those in Art 35 of the CISG and exclude sections.

  • Under CISG Article 6 parties may:

  • “exclude the application of this convention, or derogate from or vary the effect of any of its provisions”.

  • Parties therefore free to exclude liability for breach of express promises; and

  • The implied promises relating to fitness for purpose or compliance with sample.

UNIDROIT principles
  • These principles do not have the status of a convention but they are rather a loose set of recommendations as to how parties should construct their contract or how countries can draft their sales laws (i.e. an attempt to harmonise the rules)

  • Non-binding, but more comprehensive set commercial contract rules than the ICSG.

  • UNIDROIT Article 5.1.6 “where quality of performance is neither fixed by, nor determinable from, the contract a party is bound to render a performance of a quality that is reasonable and not less than average in the circumstances”.

  • Thus, these provisions won’t apply where parties set their own standard for performance (e.g. the parties introduced warranties in the contract as to the quality of the goods or their fitness for purpose)

  • UNIDROIT leave a lot of freedom for parties to make own arrangements on performance/ exclusion clauses, however, if UNIDROIT is adopted a P may be subject to the duties of Good Faith & Fair Dealing which may affect the S’s ability to avoid liability for underperformance.

  • A Court will apply them if parties have incorporated the UNIDROIT or where they have agreed that the contract will be governed by general principles of law.

Description/ quality Exclusion of liability
  • Where particular purpose is made known to seller, court is likely to find that, for performance of the seller to be reasonable, the goods must be fit for that purpose.

  • Sale of sample likely to be construed as goods supplied must comply with the sample.

  • Article 1.7 ‘Each party must act in accordance with good faith and fair dealing in international trade’. (Parties cannot exclude/ limit this duty).

  • Cannot exclude duty to act in duty of good faith and fair dealing...

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