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LPC Law Notes International Commercial Law Notes

Consolidation Rights Remedies Rot Notes

Updated Consolidation Rights Remedies Rot Notes

International Commercial Law Notes

International Commercial Law

Approximately 179 pages

A collection of the best notes for new University of Law module 'International Commercial Law' the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short, these are what we believe to be the strongest set of International Commercial Law notes available...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our International Commercial Law Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Task 1:

The first thing we did was to determine whether there had been a breach of the contract and therefore whether the S had not been paid and could bring actions against the B:

The Seller has not been paid. Applying formula above:

Step 1 Relevant Terms in the Contract

Clause 5.2 of the contract states that payment is within 30 days

Step 2 Are the terms incorporated?

Incorporation happened when the contract was signed and therefore the term has been properly incorporated in the contract.

Step 3 Breach of Contract

Clause 5.2 was breached as payment did not occur within 30 days of delivery and invoice in accordance with said clause.

Step 4 Relevant remedy of the Seller or buyer

  • The Sellers main remedy is an Action for the price under clause 5.2 of the contract; and

  • Under s.49 of the SGA (the most important remedy for the seller) the seller can bring an action for the price.

  • It may not be worth pursuing the buyer as he is insolvent

Step 5 Is there a ROT CLAUSE? If none then s.18 will apply (see default provisions p.58 & p.59)Yes, clause 6 in the contract is ROT clause. The effect of a ROT clause is that, in the last resort, the S can recover its own goods and prevent a liquidator/administrator or trustee in b’ruptcy disposing of the goods.

Then, we applied the ROT clause to all the questions about the products that the B still had in its possession. We applied the ROT clause because the seller is not in possession of the goods. It makes sense, if the S was in possession of the goods then it would not need the ROT clause and could use any of the remedies to the unpaid seller (p.52):

  1. an action for the price,

  2. seller’s lien,

  3. a right of resale, or

  4. even stopping the goods in transit

Thus, we only need to use the ROT clause when the Seller is NOT in possession of the goods. In such case, Step 5 is there a ROT CLAUSE? kicks in and you will need to answer the questions by analysing the ROT clause and applying it to the facts in order to determine whether the S can recover its goods (i.e. apply the elements of step 5). That is the whole purpose of that clause. You will need to go to chapter 6 and determine which elements of the clause will be available for the S to recover its goods.

The answers are handwritten and attached to the folder. Review them just to see how we answered these questions.

Task 2

The answer to Task 2 is on page 68, international considerations. The ROT Note has specific international considerations for specific countries


Always do both: the Seller’s Claim and, if any, the Buyer’s Defence

Step 1 Relevant Terms in the Contract

  • Express:

  • Implied:

Implied UK:

- by s.27 SGA B has a duty to pay the price, B can’t claim ownership of goods until B has paid the price in full.

- By s.28 SGA = time for payment is when the goods are delivered + B is to pay in cash

- By s.10(1) = time is not of the essence (Seller wants time to be of the essence for payment)

Implied Internationally:

- B has obligation to pay the price under: Art. 54 Vienna Convention + Art. 2-301 UCC + Art. 5.1.2 UNIDROIT.

- B must pay price when goods are made available to him Art. 58 Vienna Con + Art 2-310 UCC + Art 6.1.4 UNIDROIT

- Directive 2011/7/EU sets an absolute cap on late payment permitted in commercial contracts at 60 days. Interests are calculated at 7 % points above European Central Bank Rate.

Step 2 ¿Are the terms incorporated? Either by:

  • Signature

  • Notice

  • Previous Course of dealings

Step 3 Breach of Contract

Say which relevant terms of the contract (condition or warranty) have been breached and remedy:

  • Breach of Condition: Repudiate Cont + Recover Price + Damages (Hadley v Baxendale)

  • Breach of Warranty : Damages but NO right to repudiate Contract

  • ¿What does the Client actually want?

Breach - Damages may be awarded + interests under: Law Reform Act + Late Payment of Commercial Debts Act + Late Payment of Commercial Debts Regulations. (S wants own i rate to avoid having to rely on these)(incentivise B to pay quickly by giving an early payment discount)

  • If breach of an express term, say that it goes to the heart of the contract, so will be a condition....

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