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LPC Law Notes International Commercial Law Notes

E Commerce Notes

Updated E Commerce Notes

International Commercial Law Notes

International Commercial Law

Approximately 179 pages

A collection of the best notes for new University of Law module 'International Commercial Law' the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short, these are what we believe to be the strongest set of International Commercial Law notes available...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our International Commercial Law Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Legal framework
  • E-commerce Directive 2000/31 EC

  • Given effect in UK by Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/2013) (‘the 2002 Regs’)

Formation and proof of contract
  • Offer or invitation to treat? Customer’s order is usually contractual offer, supplier’s acknowledgement of receipt is acceptance (2002 Regs, reg. 12)

  • Acceptance?

  • By email, acceptance effective when received, not sent (Thomas v BPE Solicitors)

  • On website, recipient must have had explained to him / her, the different technical steps to follow to conclude the contract (Reg. 9(1)(a)); order & acknowledgement received when addressees able to access them (Reg. 11(2)(a)) (although non-consumers free to make other arrangements)

  • Incorporation of terms? Same rules, incl. battle of forms

Law and jurisdiction, choices and application
  • Primacy is given to choice of law of the parties (as under Rome)

  • Rule on Internet selling to consumers in Member States under Regulation 1215/2012 (Brussels I) – 14.2

  • Defendants often bodies concerned w/allocation or regn of domain names, ICANN (US) and Nominet (UK)

Passing off
  • Many cases involving websites ‘passing themselves off’ as other companies

  • To register + use name of well-known co as domain name is fraudulent (Phones 4u Ltd)

  • Many other ways to pass off (display, promo technique, marks) etc

Trade marks
  • L’Oréal v eBay (2011): found that the operator of an online market place could be liable for the unlawful sale on its website of goods in breach of the rights of a trade mark proprietor

  • Downloading of material by a computed may constitute copying; if not licensed, may constitute an infringing act

  • Problems of secondary infringement involving framing, deep linking and peer-to-peer/file sharing sites

  • Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (SI 2003/2498) aims to prevent circumvention of technological measures in place to protect copyright (and other IP rights, where copyrighted works are made available to public by electronic mean

  • While most legislation affects use of websites by consumers, B2B transactions are relevant

  • Some likely risks come from:

  • competition law (e.g. ‘concerted practices’ arising out of frequent communications)

  • use of conf. info, copyright or other protected material in e-mails/attachments

  • failing to deal with important points (law / jurisdiction, or incorporation of terms)

  • not considering whether a party (natural person) is acting as a ‘consumer’

E-Commerce (EC Directive) “2002 Regulations”
  • Regulates provision of goods, services and info to customers by ‘information society service providers’ (ISSPs)

  • ‘Consumer’: any natural person acting other than for his / her trade, business or profession

  • It requires Sellers selling on the internet to provide certain information pre-contract information about their:

  • Reg.6(1): Detailed information about ISSP (identity), location, contact details, other professional + regulatory requirements, VAT number)

  • Reg.6(2): Prices must be clearly + unambiguously indicated, whether incl of tax + delivery

  • Reg.7: Commercial communications (i.e. marketing) information: must be identifiable, must clearly identify promotional offers, must ensure conditions are clear and accessible

  • Reg.9: Information prior to orders being placed by user i.e. prior contract (technical steps, whether contract will be filled and where, how to correct errors, language, the T&Cs); T&Cs must be made available in a way that allows for storage and reproduction (Reg. 9(3))

  • Reg. 11: Acknowledge receipt of order quickly and by electronic means (method is not specified so webpage can be used)

  • Non-compliance is actionable at instance of enforcement authorities and ISS recipients; principal remedies are:

  • claim for damages for breach of statutory duty (Reg. 13)

  • court order to require supply of contract terms to comply with Reg. 9(3) (Reg. 14)

  • right to apply to court for rescission, if ISSP does not provide means for correcting input errors required by Reg. 11(1)(b) (Reg. 15)

  • Protecting right of person to seek court relief to stop infringement of any rights (Reg. 20)

Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges)

“2013 Regulations”

  • Implement EU Consumer Rights Directive

  • Concern distance selling and supply of digital content, including digital downloads

  • Goods bought over internet can be cancelled w/in 14 days of receipt; selling business must issue a refund ‘without undue delay’ incl. basic delivery charges originally imposed

  • Prior to sale, traders obliged to provide consumers with clear and comprehensible list of information, including:

  • description of main characteristics of product

  • name, address and phone number of their business

  • total price

  • payment and delivery arrangements

  • details of ‘the conditions, time limit and procedures’ that apply to cancellations

  • For digital downloads, retailers must not supply digital content during 14-day cooling-off period unless consumer has given specific consent; once download starts, loses right to cancel

  • Physical delivery of goods must be made when agreed; if not agreed, supply must be made ‘without undue delay’ and at very latest within 30 days’; at seller’s risk until delivered

  • Regulations prohibit high rate phone charges when consumer phones to discuss order – a basic rate number must be supplied

Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications 2003 (PECR)

“2003 Regulations”

  • Specialised and focused regime of data protection for electronic communications (in addition to Data Protection Act 1998 – Reg. 4)

  • Reg. 5 requires provider of public electronic communications service and provider of communications network to take appropriate security measures

  • Reg. 6 deals with confidentiality of information; prevents accessing or storing of info from subscriber/user computer, except where person told about purpose for access or...

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