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Diabetes Mellitus Notes

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This is an extract of our Diabetes Mellitus document, which we sell as part of our Biochemistry Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford students.

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Diabetes mellitus Types of diabetes
-Type 1: insulin dependent
-Type 2: insulin independent
-Other: Gestational, tropical, malnutrition relative Diagnose
-Oral glucose tolerance test-plasma glucose responses to 75g glucose orally
-Diabetes: there is a large rise in plasma glucose levels, remain elevated for long periods of time
-Symptoms: Polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, fatty acid mobilisation, ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia Type 1
-Caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B cells-insulitis
-Studies of concordance in identical twins-40%, some genetic component-polygenic Effects:
-Pancreatic B cells measure blood glucose concentrations and secrete insulin accordingly which signals to the other tissues about the availability of energy substrates. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the liver via the hepatic portal circulation
-insulin is the only anabolic hormone, promotes anabolic reactions and suppresses catabolic reaction which is the default pathway
-Suppression of glucose production
-Stimulation of glucose uptake
-Supression of fat metabolism
-Suppression of ketogeneiss
-Activation of lipoprotein lipase
-Stimulation of net protein anabolism
-Physiological decreases in insulin concentrations are seen in starvation

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