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Lipoprotein metabolism and lipid disorders Functions of lipids
-Energy: Triacylglycerides, fatty acids-very reduced so large amounts of energy are released per gram. Disadv: very hydrophobic, problematic for transport-Slow
-Structural: Phospholipids, cholesterol, sphingolipids
-Signalling: Prostoglandins, ionsitol lipids, steroid hormones, sphingolipids
-Involvement in inflammatory responses Lipids in plasma Lipids carried by lipoproteins
-Triacylglycerol: non polar
-Esterified cholesterol: Non polar
-Unesterified cholesterol: relatively polar/ampihatic Albumin: Non esterified free fatty acids, ampiphatic, concentrations of free fatty acids (non esterified must remain very low due to their detergent like properties of dissolving membranes) Lipoprotein particle Core: material transported- Triacylglycerol, cholesterol ester - both very hydrophobic molecules, also fat soluable vitamins A,D,E,K, fat soluable toxins Surface shell/monolayer: Unesterified cholesterol, monolayer of phospholipidsampiphatic molecules that can react with both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments
-There are also apolipoproteins. Apolipoprotein B has a structural role, only one copy present and is a very large protein. Apolipoprotein E is a ligand for the tissues that express lipoprotein receptors. Apolipoprotein C2 is a coenzyme for lipase enzyme Lipoprotein lipase
-Lipoprotein lipase is found attached to the endothelial cells of capillaries by a heparan sulphate proteoglycans anchor and cleaves the triglyceride from the lipoprotein-chylomicrons/Very low density lipoproteins
-Requires apolipoprotein C2 as a coactivator which is found on chylomicrons/VLDL
-This allows the triglycerides to enter tissues such as the heart/adipose tissue
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