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What are the main clinical features of a depressive episode? What is the evidence base for current treatment approaches?
Clinical Features of depressive episode Defining and classifying MDD is difficult: The symptoms exhibited vary massively from person to person and there are many confounding factors such as tragic events which also lead to similar symptoms. The two most commonly used criteria for diagnosis are the
-DSM-5 - American psychiatric association diagnostic and statistical manual
-ICD-10. Major depressive disorder is characterised by a history of one or more major depressive episodes and no history of mania
-Major depressive episode manifests with 5 or more of the following symptoms for at least 2 consecutive weeks; at least one symptom must be either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure
*Depressed mood most the day, nearly every day
*Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all activities, nearly every day
*Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
*Significant weight loss or weight gain (eg, 5 percent within a month) or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
*Psychomotor retardation or agitation nearly every day that is observable by others
*Fatigue or low energy, nearly every day
*Decreased ability to concentrate, think, or make decisions, nearly every day
*Thoughts of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, nearly every day
*Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt
-In addition symptoms cause significant distress or psychosocial impairment
-There should be multiple "major depressive episodes" where these symptoms persist for 2 weeks or more.
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