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What do memory illusions tell us about the nature of human memory and what are the practical implications?
What evidence suggests the people exhibit false memories? Why do these false memories arise?
Why do false memories occur? What are the practical implications False memories Definition: A memory that is either partly or wholly inaccurate but is accepted as a real memory by the person doing the remembering
-It is a characteristic of normal rather than pathological remembering
-Roediger and McDermott 1995- developed a paradigm that could induce high levels of false recall and false recognition
-Participants are read a list of words that are semantically related to a critical word that is never presented. At test participants claim to remember many of the critical words
-E.g bed, night, tired- many of the subjects heard sleep which is the critical word that was not presented sleep- Subjects claimed to remember similar amounts of non-presented words and they did with words that were actually presented
-When test is repeated with a longer list of words- there Is a greater rate of false recall rate Mechanism Causes of false memories Reyna and Lloyd (1997) set out to compare and evaluate explanations offered by contemporary theories of false memory: constructivism, source monitoring, and fuzzytrace theory
-Implicit associative response that doesn't come to conscious attention- E.g implicit association with the word sleep so when they see sleep later they state they recognise seeing the item when they had actually generated it themselves. Studies have shown that more similar the presented and associative words are the more likely it is that a false recognition error will be made
-Earlies theories of false memory is constructivism-Bradford, Barlay, Franks1972
-This theory describes that people remember what they perceive to be the meaning of the experience- so after events are experienced they are then interpreted and integrated into semantic structures and the actual content of the memory/surface form disappears. However this has been disconfirmed by studies that show that the surface form can be retained in memory for longer than a few mintues
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