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Normal and abnormal development Development and plasticity Timing is of essence?
Protracted developmental changes: changes from childhood into adulthood continue across cortical areas Heterochronous developmental changes o Rise and fall of synaptic density differs in timing for visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex
Clinical relevance of developmental timing Language effects children who suffered brain injury prenatally or within 1 st 6 months of life?Right hemisphere injuries- great risk for delays in word comprehension - however in adults damage occurs in the left hemisphere Left posterior injuries: greater risk for production difficulties whereas in adults injury is in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (more anterior-broca's) Children with early unilateral brain injury- their brain difficulties seem to resolve, regardless of the side of lesions. Results of study o Child had smaller mean length of utterance with LHD compared to RHD o In Adults people with LHD had much greater decrease in length of utterance compared to child. But with RHD the mean length of utterance was greater
Children with early LHD have difficulties with processing and producing both local and global aspects of their visual environment when tested with navon figures (Big M made from lots of little z). In contrast adults with LHD can process the global image but not the local image- can see the M but not the z Children with early RHD have difficulties with the global aspects of these tasks only, they can spot the local letters. This is the same with adults
Executive function?Prenatal insults to the frontal lobe performed more poorly across the board on executive tasks such as Tower of London; Fluency tests Children with lesions between 7-9 years did best Children with lesions in early childhood and after 10 years of age was task dependent and generally poorer than controls
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