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Introduction To Psychology Notes

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Introduction to psychology- Lecture one Human beings

Biological organsisms- whose behaviour is controlled by neural systems; endocrine systems and is a product of evolution As players in a social setting: influenced by people around them and is determined by culture they find themselves in As processors of information: experience emotion

Recall is reconstructive in nature

Loftus and Palmer 1974 - subjects view a video of two car accidents; asked what speed were the cars travelling when the collided/smashed o Results: Smashed leads to higher speed estimates; false memory of glass on road

Non-adherence with medical advice

Ley 1997: Approx. 50% patients comply with medical advice but figure can drop as low as 10%
Major cause of poor treatment outcome o Christensen + Moran 1998 - caused half of deaths with renal failure Haynes et al 1996: Improving compliance to existing treatments can be more effective than improving treatment itself Causes of non adherence o Patient's beliefs clash with treatment
 Some think that hypertension is seen as acute/chronic disorder; so treatment is more effective in chronic disorder believers. Important to elicit patient beliefs during consultation before giving advice o Forgetting advice in GP consultation- on average around 50% but can be higher even a few minutes after consultation Improving memory o Put information first and last- more likely to be remembered - this is known as the SERIAL POSITION RECALL EFFECT (Give people whole series of words and ask them to recall them, good memory for 1 st and last words) o Organise information into meaningful groups
 What is wrong with you; benefits of treatment; side effects; when and what to do
 This gives a better overall memory as people remember first and last within each group o Restruct information to what patient can process o Repeat and otherwise emphasise key information o Use simple words and short sentences o Be specific - E.g walk 20 mins/day rather than exercise moregreater behavioural compliance o Be calm

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