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Potential Section A Questions Lt With Answers Notes

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Potential Section A Questions - Lent Term with Answers

1. Describe the causes of the collapse of the unequal treaty port system

Relatively balanced at first China showed willingness at the beginning, but gun boat diplomacy was a major factor Compradors and middlemen became involved in trade Status quo essentially unchallenged until Japan came along (Duus et al., 1989) Japan wanted treaty port status since Meiji restoration o Acquired it with the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki gave more navigation rights on Yangtze and Woosung and manufacturing rights  Altered the status quo  Foreigners became more prominent  Xenophobia and Nationalism When they attempted to gain more control of Manchuria this led to boycotts and strikes in 1920s o Failure for Paris Peace Conference to acknowledge of conclude on the Manchuria problem However, by this time Britain (1928) was willing to concede tariff autonomy o Lord Cadogan (1935) - Trade important but not at risk of security Japanese territorial ambitions led to the collapse of the treaty port system

2. What role did Japan play for Chinese reformists in the late 19th century to early 20th century

Success of Meiji reforms  Qing Confucian reforms looked to Japan for inspiration Reformist community developed in Japan  Received protection from Japan Abolition of civil service examinations  Overseas study important for government roles Japanese proximity meant many students went to Japan  Large student movement in the early 1900s (Jansen, 1980) Initial student activism faced at foreign imperialism not the Qing o But instability meant reformists moved focus towards Qing  Qing became vigilant of students in Tokyo (Woo, 1980) After the Hundred Days, Japan tried to intermediate between Qing and reformists, but Japan then seen to be harbouring reformists

3. What were the key economic objectives of the early Mao period?

Four main objectives during early Mao period (Maddison, 1998; Naughton, 1991) 1) Target landlords, bourgeoisie and foreign interests o Reforms to property rights o Land reform (1950-1952)  Confiscate land and redistribution  Agricultural growth and improving living standards 2) Increase in state revenues  finance admin mechanisms, military expansion and capital accumulation 3) Replace market economy with regulatory devices and state planning o First five year plan  3.5% growth in grain production o Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)  Mass mobilization, rapid expansion, collectivization  state planning apparatus and control over agricultural resources 4) Foreign trade eliminated  Goal of self-sufficiency o Worried of reliance on foreign imports o Danger of military intervention from West  US encroaching on China in Korea, Vietnam  Japanese in Burma, Laos etc. (Moise, 1986) o Aided by trade embargoes by European countries until 1957 and US until 1971

4. Describe the main changes in economic variables in the period 1952-1978 along with their causes

Between 1953 and 1978 - Annual output grew 6% on average o First FYP contributed towards this
 Construction of 694 industrial projects  Massive increase in investment
 Exceed original target by 17% (Hsu, 2000)
 But on the back of dramatic laws of prewar China, years of civil war etc.  Context important!
o Success not consistent throughout the period (Eckstein, 1973) Between 1950 and 1980s - Population grew from 560m to 1bn o Increasing living standards o CCP not initially worried by population growth (Marxist view as asset) o 1950s  small scale efforts to control  campaigns on virtue of late marriage etc.  Little success o 1970s leadership expressed economic growth as an outcome of population control o One child policy officially launched by 1979

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