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Week 14 Reading Four Modernizations Notes

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The Four Modernizations

THE FOUR MODERNIZATIONS INTRODUCTION

Four modernizations of - agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense Goal was to turn China into a leading modern state by the year 2000 Written into the party constitution (11 th Congress, 1977) Witten into the state constitution (5 th National People's Congress, 1978) By writing into the constitutions, it should not be affected by changes in leadership

THE TEN-YEAR PLAN

"a grandiose ten-year modernization programme for 1976-1985"

THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

Annual rate of industrial growth was set at 10 percent Aim to complete 120 major projects o 10 iron and steel complexes, 6 oil and gas fields, 30 power stations, 8 coal mines, 9 nonferrous metal complexes, 7 major turn railways and 5 key harbours

STEEL

Production decreased under the Gang of Four despite a comeback in the early 1970s Called for increased production to 60m tons by 1985 and 180m tons by 1999 Major projects: o Steel complex at Chi-Tung to produce 10m tons/year under contract with German firms o Steel complex at Pao-shan under contract with Japanese firms to produce 6m

OIL

Vast advances in 1960s with new discoveries and establishment of the Ta-Ching Oil field in Manchuria, the Sheng-li Oil Fied in Shantung and the Ta-kang Oil Field in Tientsin Called for construction of 10 new oil and gas fields costing $60bn

COAL

Provided 70% of China's primary energy supply but most of the mines were small and old Called for 8 new mines along with renovation of existing ones Aimed to double production to 900m tons per year

ELECTRIC POWER

Production of electricity was the weakest link in the modernization plan In 1978 China ranked 9th in electricity production, but per capita consumption was extremely low, below both India and Pakistan Called for construction of 30 power stations, 20 of which were to be hydropower o To increase production by 6 to 8 million kw per year
 But was far short of that which was required Major projects: o 2.7 million kw, Ko-hou-pa hydropower station on the Yangtze o 1.6 million kw, Lung-yang Gorge Station on the Yellow River

AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

Since 1949 had consistently received less investment than industry and defense Cultural Revolution drove agriculture to the brink of bankruptcy

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