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LPC Law Notes Business Law and Practice Notes

Allotment Of Shares 1 Notes

Updated Allotment Of Shares 1 Notes

Business Law and Practice Notes

Business Law and Practice

Approximately 649 pages

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OUTCOME 1: Procedural Steps to Allot Ordinary and Preference Shares

STEP 1: Are there Constitutional Restrictions? (i.e. Art of the Company)p.191

(statutory provisions are in place to protect existing s’holders from dilution of their rights by issues of shares to 3rd parties)

Incorporated before 01/10/2009 (“old”)

  • Firstly, check Authorised Share Capital (ASC) clause in the memorandum of association:

    • If too low, remove the ASCclause by OR

  • Then, check the Articles for any upper restriction on the size of the allotment (there is none in TA):

    • If limit is too low, remove the article by SR

Incorporated on or after 01/10/2009 (“new”)

  • There is no authorised share capital under the CA 2006 (issue as many shares as Co. wants unless Art’s restrict)

  • New companies need to make a statement of capital on incorporation (Form IN01)

  • But check the Articles for any upper limit (there is none in the MA)

  • If there is one, remove by SR(s21. CA)

STEP 2: Do the Directors have Authority to Allot?
  • s.549 CA 2006: directors need authority to allot shares

  • Check if express authority exists in the Articles of Association by a special article

  • YES, it exists: check number of shares and duration of authority (activate D’s Powers for an Old Co. check if status of Automatic Authority in a New Co. ). Now go to pre-emption rights.

  • NO, it does not exist or number of shares inadequate/duration expired and therefore:

Private company with 1 class of share p.192
(before and after allotment)
All other companiesp.192
“Old” “New”

PassOR to activate D’s powers under s.549 and s.550.Ds will now have permanent authority to allot subject to any restrictions in the Articles.

If restrictions exist in Articles, then either:

  1. Remove by SRs.21or

  2. Unders.551: pass an OR to grant a new authority to allot. If s.551 was used see limits

s.550: automatic authority is given unless Articles prohibit.

So, check Articles for restriction on D’s authority, and if restriction exists either:

  1. Remove by SR; or

  2. s.551: pass an OR to grant a new authority to allot If s.551 was used see limits

They may have authority given by either:

  1. Specifically i.e. by the Articles; or

  2. Generally i.e. pass an OR/WRin GMto grant a new authority to allot s.551. This must state:

  1. maximum number of shares that can be allotted (s.551(3)(a)) and

  2. the expiry dateof this authority (s.551(3)(b)), which must not be more than 5 years from the date of the resolution.

But under (s.551(4)), authorisation can be renewed(s.551(5)), varied or revoked by OR.

STEP 3: Are there any Statutory Pre-Emption Rights? (SPER) s.560-s.577 CA 2006p.193
  • Pre-emption rights arise under: 1) statute, 2) The Co.’s Constitution, and 3) the (Fin ServAut) FSA’s Listing Rules

SPER”: where an allotment of new shares it must be offered to existing shareholders first in proportion to their existing holdings (offer remains open for 14 days) If the allotment is to the existing S’holders of the Co in the proportion of their existing holdings, the statutory rights apply and therefore no need to disapply but follow 14 day rule. If allotment is to a 3rd party then first offer to S’holder and if they don’t want them then the shares are offered to the 3rd parties on same terms(price) as to the S’holders(s.561) and follow a), b) or c):

  1. If allotting Preference Shares(PSs) i.e. not providing voting rights = no need to disapply pre-emption unless, the PSs can be converted into Ordinary Shares (s.560 and s.561) Or you are allotting shares in different proportions

  2. If allotting Ordinary Shares i.e. providing voting rights = need to disapply pre-emption (s.560 and s.561)

    1. Expressly in the Articles under the power of s.567; or

    2. By SRunders.569to disapply inPrivateCo.s with 1 class of share if D’s were authorised under s.550

    3. By SRunders.570to disapply in Public Companies if D’s were authorised under s.551p.194

  3. Where shares are issued wholly or partly for non-cash consideration (say, a piece of land), s 561 of the CA 2006 has no application (s 565). In such a case, there would be no need to disapply statutory pre-emption rights, as there would not be any pre-emption rights in the first place. (But check Articles these may include pre-emption when consideration is non-cash.)

Board Meeting 1
  • TA88: any D can call a BM/authorise a secretary to call one

  • Apply to the facts: who has called it?

  • Re Homer: there must be reasonable notice

  • Apply to the facts: has there been reasonable notice?

  • TA89: there must be at least 2 present

  • Apply to the facts: are there two present? Who has to turn up to satisfy this?

Declarations of Interest
  • s.177: a director must declare their direct/indirect interest in a proposed transaction to the other directors;

  • But, s.177(6)(b): not if the other directors are aware of it;

  • However, it’s best practice to do so anyway.

  • Apply to the facts: what is their interest? Have they declared it?

  • Do any special Articles disapplyTA94, thereby allowing a director with an interest to vote at the BM?

  • TA94(c): a D can vote at the BM regardless of interest if it’s an allotment

  • Voting is done by simple majority as a show of hands (TA88)

  • Apply to the facts: which of the Ds must vote for the resolutions to pass?

  • After due and careful consideration, the Board resolves to:

    • Call a GM

    • Approve the terms of the allotment of shares by producing and signing a letter of subscription

  • Apply to the facts: will these resolutions be passed? Who must vote to ensure they are passed?

General Meeting: Notice
  • TA38: there must be 21cleardays’ notice for the passing of a SR or 14cleardaysnotice for the passing of an OR

  • Apply to the facts: has this happened? What is the date by which notice must be given?

Short Notice
  • TA38: for an AGM, all members must agree; for a GM, there must be:

    • A majority in the number...

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