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LPC Law Notes Business Law and Practice Notes

Business Accounts Notes

Updated Business Accounts Notes

Business Law and Practice Notes

Business Law and Practice

Approximately 649 pages

A collection of the best LPC BLP notes the director of Oxbridge Notes (an Oxford law graduate) could find after combing through dozens of LPC samples from outstanding students with the highest results in England and carefully evaluating each on accuracy, formatting, logical structure, spelling/grammar, conciseness and "wow-factor".

In short these are what we believe to be the strongest set of Business Law and Practice notes available in the UK this year. This collection of notes is fully updat...

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BUSINESS ACCOUNTS

Ratios

Return on Capital Employed [ROCE]

Indicated the rate of return on the capital employed in the business. The higher, the better.

$$\frac{Net\ Profit}{Capital\ Employed}\ \times \ 100\%$$

Net Profit:

  • In P&L, net profit = operation profit

  • Partnerships: before deduction of interest

  • Companies: before deduction of interest AND tax

Capital Employed:

  • Total assets less current liabilities

Net Profit Percentage (Net Return on Sales)

Gives the net profit margin on sales and is based on the profit figure before interest has been paid.

$$\frac{Net\ Profit}{Sales}\ \times \ 100\%$$

Net Profit:

  • In P&L, net profit = operation profit

  • Partnerships: before deduction of interest

Companies: before deduction of interest AND tax

Sales:

= turnover

  • Margins which are above average will imply good management, but if unusually high may indicate the company has a favoured position in the market which may soon be eroded by competition.

  • Low margins may sometimes be deliberately set to increase the company's market share or attract business from its competitors, but low margins will also be an indication of poor management.

Gearing Ratio

Analyses the financial structure of the company.

$$\frac{Borrowings}{Capital\ Employed}\ \times \ 100\%$$

Borrowings:

  • In Balance Sheet, = long-term loans (i.e. creditors falling due after 1 year)

Capital Employed:

  • In Balance Sheet, = creditors falling due after 1 year + called up share capital + share premium account

A high geared business has acquired most of its long-term finance by borrowing whereas a low geared business will have most of its long-term finance from its proprietors.
Liquidity Ratios
Current Ratio

Acid Test

Preferred measure of the position of a business.

$$\frac{Current\ Assets}{Current\ Liabilities}\ :1$$

Current Assets:

  • Includes stock, debtors, and cash

$$\frac{Liquid\ Assets}{Current\ Liabilites}\ :1$$

Liquid Assets:

  • Current assets excluding stock

Current Liabilities:

  • Balance Sheet, any debts due within the next 12 months (e.g. taxation, trade creditors, dividends payable)

Current Liabilities:

  • Balance Sheet, any debts due within the next 12 months (e.g. taxation, trade creditors, dividends payable)

If the ratio is less than 1:1 this will usually give cause for concern – may signify

shortage of working capital.

Earnings per Share (companies only)

Primary measure of a...

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