This is an extract of our Pro Swing V. Elta Golf document, which we sell as part of our Conflict of Laws BCL Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford students.
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PRO SWING V. ELTA GOLF FACTS QUESTION This case requires the Court to consider whether the common law should be extended to permit the enforcement of foreign non-money judgments and, if so, in what circumstances. HOLDING Recognition of non-money judgments must be permitted The traditional common law position is that foreign judgments are recognizable and enforceable only if they meet two conditions. First, they must be for a definite sum of money. Second, they must be final and conclusive. These requirements ensure that in ordinary cases the merits of foreign judgments are not considered by an enforcing court. Barring exceptional concerns, a court's focus when enforcing a foreign judgment is not on the substantive and procedural law on which the judgment is based, but instead on the obligation created by the judgment itself. These developments establish that the absolute common law ban on the enforcement of all foreign non-money judgments may no longer be useful and should be reconsidered. The possibility of enforcing foreign non-money judgments would represent an incremental change in the common law of Canada. The principled approach to recognition of foreign monetary judgments in cases such as Morguard and Beals invites application of the same principles to non-money judgments in order to preserve the consistency and logic of this body of the law. At the same time, care must be taken to ensure that recognition is confined to cases where it is appropriate and does not create undue problems for the legal system of the enforcing state or unfair results for the parties. Caution is in order. The time has come to permit the enforcement of foreign nonmoney orders where the general principles of Morguard are met and other considerations do not render recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgment inadvisable or unjust. When should non-money judgments be enforced?
1. Traditional Conditions The foreign court order is seen as creating a new obligation on the defendant. In the case of a money judgment, this is a debt. In the case of a non-money judgment, it is a different sort of obligation. A court enforcing a foreign judgment is enforcing the
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