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Claims against partnerships
CPR, Part 7, how to start proceedings
7.2A: PD 7A makes provision for procedures to be followed when: claims are brought by or against a partnership within the jurisdiction.
5A, Claims by and against partnerships within the jurisdiction
-para 5A and 5B apply to claims that are brought by or against two or more persons who:
o (1) were partners; and
(2) carried on that partnership business within the jurisdiction
at the time when the cause of action accrued.
-for the purposes of this para, 'partners" includes: persons claiming to be entitled as partners; and persons alleged to be partners.
-Where that partnership has a name: ? unless it is inappropriate to do so, claims must be brought in or against the name under which that partnership carried on business at the time the cause of action accrued.
5C, Individual Persons carrying on business in another name
-This para applies where:
o (1) the claim is brought against an individual;
o (2) that individual carries on a business within the jurisdiction (even if not personally within the jurisdiction); AND
o (3) that business is carried on in a name other than that individual's own name ("the business name").
-The claim may be brought against the 'business name' as if it were the name of a partnership.
Part 19, parties and group litigation
19.1, Any number of Cs or Ds may be joined as parties to a claim
-Any number of Cs or D may be joined as parties to a claim.
19.3, Provisions applicable where 2 or more persons are jointly entitled to a remedy
-(1) where a C claims a remedy to which some other person is jointly entitled with him ? all persons jointly entitled to the remedy must be parties
UNLESS the court orders otherwise.
-(2): if any person does not agree to be a claimant, he must be made a defendant,
o UNLESS the court orders otherwise.
o [[will be a defendant in name only, but it means he'll be bound by the judgment, to avoid multiplicity of proceedings]] ?
(3): This rule does NOT apply in probate proceedings.
19.7A, Representation of beneficiaries by trustees etc
-[[[Links to rule 19.3: all parties entitled to a remedy must be a party to the claim---so all trustees must be party to the claim, whether as C or D]]]
-(1) a claim may be brought by or against trustees, executors or administrators in that capacity, WITHOUT ADDING as parties "the beneficiaries" (any persons who have a beneficial interest in the trust or estate).
-(2) any judgment or order given or made in the claim is binding on the beneficiaries,
unless the court orders otherwise in the same or other proceedings.
-(1) where a person who had an interest in the claim has died; AND that person has no personal representative, the court may order:
o (a) the claim to proceed in the absence of a person representing the estate of the deceased; OR
o (b) a person to be appointed to represent the estate of the deceased.
-(2) where a D against whom a claim could have been brought has died AND:
o (a) a grant of probate or administration has been made ?, the claim must be brought against the persons who are the personal reps [i.e. administrator or executor]] of the deceased;
o (b) a grant of probate or administration has not been made ?
-(i) the claim must be brought against "the estate of" the deceased;
-(ii) the C must apply to the court for an order appointing a person to represent the estate of the deceased in the claim.
-(3) A claim shall be treated as having been brought against "the estate of" the deceased in accordance with para (2)(b)(i), where:
o (a) the claim is brought against the "personal representatives" of the deceased but a grant of probate or administration has not been made; OR
o (b) the person against whom the claim was brought was dead when the claim was started.
-(4): before making an order under this rule, the court may direct notice of the application to be given to any other person with an interest in the claim.
-(5): where an order has been made under paras (1) or (2)(b)(ii) ? any judgment or order made or given in the claim is binding on the estate of the deceased.
Bringing & settling proceedings involving children & protected parties:
Part 21, Children and protected parties
21.1, Scope of this part
-(1) This Part
(a) contains special provisions which apply in proceedings involving children and protected parties;
o (b) sets out how a person becomes a litigation friend; and
(c) does not apply, WHERE one of the parties to the proceedings is a child, to:
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